By Egbert J. Bakker, Ahuvia Kahane
Written Voices, Spoken indicators is a stimulating advent to new views on Homer and different conventional epics. making the most of contemporary examine on language and social trade, the 9 essays during this quantity concentrate on functionality and viewers reception of oral poetry. those leading edge essays by way of major students of Homer, oral poetics, and epic invite us to reconsider a few key suggestions for an realizing of conventional epic poetry. Egbert Bakker examines the epic performer's use of time and demanding in recounting a previous that's alive. Tackling the query of full-length functionality of the huge Iliad, Andrew Ford considers the level to which the paintings was once perceived as a coherent complete within the archaic age. John Miles Foley addresses questions on spoken symptoms and the method of reference in epic discourse, and Ahuvia Kahane reports rhythm as a semantic think about the Homeric functionality. Richard Martin indicates a brand new variety of functionality services for the Homeric simile. And Gregory Nagy establishes the significance of 1 characteristic of epic language, the ellipsis. those six essays headquartered on Homer have interaction with basic concerns which are addressed through 3 essays essentially all for medieval epic: these by way of Franz Bäuml at the suggestion of truth; via Wulf Oesterreicher on sorts of orality; and through Ursula Schaefer on written and spoken media. of their creation the editors spotlight the underlying method and viewpoints of this collaborative quantity.
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Extra info for Written Voices, Spoken Signs: Tradition, Performance, and the Epic Text (Center for Hellenic Studies Colloquia)
If Ruijgh36 is right in his suggestion that the root of this verb, mel-, is connected with our verb mellein (*mel-y-ein)—and given the mental nature of the meaning of both verbs, this seems plausible—then we have an interesting starting point for our return to mellein as used by the Homeric narrator. To be on the mind of all the people, as Odysseus claims he is, is a matter of kleos, a generic state. In terms of the poetics of epic, it is the memory of the epic action before its concrete actualization in poetry.
The tomb (se¯ ma) of his victim, Hektor thinks, will serve as sign pointing to the past. 34 Somewhat different but equally relevant is what Odysseus says at the moment suprême when he reveals his identity to his hosts, the Phaeaceans: eÑm‰ ‰Oduseêv Laerti©dhv, Òv p¸si dâloisin «njrópoisi mÁlw kaÉ meu klÁov oëranãn Ókei. ” Odysseus does not talk of his kleos in the future, as Hektor does, but, surprisingly, in the present tense. This means that Odysseus, as Charles Segal has argued,35 is outside the heroic action.
The evidence presented to this consciousness, in fact, is not only the present discourse but also, and more so, the memory of previous discourses, the cumulative total of all the previous reexperiences, in short, the epic tradition. The tradition is, in effect, the only access route to a past of which the poetic speech act of the performance is the institutionalized invocation. 22 Formulas, then, are not so much inherently traditional phrases as phrases with traditional intent, acknowledged elements of the performer’s traditional strategies.