By John O. Brehm, Scott Gates

Bureaucrats practice lots of the projects of presidency, profoundly influencing the day-by-day lives of american citizens. yet who, or what, controls what bureaucrats do?

John Brehm and Scott Gates research who impacts even if federal, country, and native bureaucrats paintings, shirk, or sabotage coverage. The authors mix deductive types and desktop simulations of bureaucratic habit with statistical research which will examine the competing impacts over how bureaucrats dissipate their efforts. Drawing upon surveys, observational experiences, and administrative documents of the functionality of public staff in a number of settings, Brehm and Gates exhibit that the explanations bureaucrats paintings as difficult as they do contain the character of the roles they're recruited to accomplish and the impression of either their fellow staff and their consumers within the public. not like the conclusions of principal-agency versions, the authors exhibit that the explanations bureaucrats paintings so tough have little to do with the coercive capacities of supervisors.

This publication is geared toward scholars of forms and firms and should be of curiosity to researchers in political technological know-how, economics, public coverage, and sociology.

"This publication is breathtaking in its use of versions and methods. . . . The technique constructed via Brehm and Gates permits us to re-open empirical questions that experience lain dormant for years." --Bryan D. Jones, college of Washington

John Brehm is affiliate Professor of Political technological know-how, Duke collage. Scott Gates is affiliate Professor of Political technology, Michigan nation University.

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Extra info for Working, Shirking, and Sabotage: Bureaucratic Response to a Democratic Public

Sample text

In this model, the choices of agents depend on the underlying psychological attitudes toward such factors as wages, perquisites of office, power, and disposition toward particular policies. By incorporating political factors into this utility-maximizing framework, 6. This game also differs from the specific characteristics of production-by-teams models. A production-by-teams model involves a group of agents that independently allocates levels of effort to produce a single output for the entire group (Holmstrom 1982; Miller 1987; Bianco and Bates 1990).

Policies can be viewed as bundles of particular policy outputs, where the sum of particular bureaucratic outputs constitutes a general policy orientation for the organization. Since it is rather common to find several policy sets to be competing for support within an organization, individuals will form factions II. Shirking alone, then, may prevent a policy from being implemented; sabotage may not be necessary. 12. Lazear (1989, 1995) addresses a different kind of sabotage where one member of a production team engages in a costly action which adversely affects the output of another while competing for organizational rewards.

How do we reconcile aggregate responsiveness with a literature emphasizing discretion for individual agents, and constraints upon individual supervisors? Our argument in this book is that the basic unit of analysis in the problem of supervision in public bureaucracies is the individual bureaucrat and his or her relationship to potential actors. We will demonstrate that the means by which democratic publics gain responsiveness from agents, and 22 Working, Shirking, and Sabotage hence agencies, depends upon factors outside traditional conceptions of coercive authority underlying applications of the economics of the firm to public bureaucracies.

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