By John O. Brehm, Scott Gates
Read or Download Working, Shirking, and Sabotage: Bureaucratic Response to a Democratic Public PDF
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Extra info for Working, Shirking, and Sabotage: Bureaucratic Response to a Democratic Public
In this model, the choices of agents depend on the underlying psychological attitudes toward such factors as wages, perquisites of office, power, and disposition toward particular policies. By incorporating political factors into this utility-maximizing framework, 6. This game also differs from the specific characteristics of production-by-teams models. A production-by-teams model involves a group of agents that independently allocates levels of effort to produce a single output for the entire group (Holmstrom 1982; Miller 1987; Bianco and Bates 1990).
Policies can be viewed as bundles of particular policy outputs, where the sum of particular bureaucratic outputs constitutes a general policy orientation for the organization. Since it is rather common to find several policy sets to be competing for support within an organization, individuals will form factions II. Shirking alone, then, may prevent a policy from being implemented; sabotage may not be necessary. 12. Lazear (1989, 1995) addresses a different kind of sabotage where one member of a production team engages in a costly action which adversely affects the output of another while competing for organizational rewards.
How do we reconcile aggregate responsiveness with a literature emphasizing discretion for individual agents, and constraints upon individual supervisors? Our argument in this book is that the basic unit of analysis in the problem of supervision in public bureaucracies is the individual bureaucrat and his or her relationship to potential actors. We will demonstrate that the means by which democratic publics gain responsiveness from agents, and 22 Working, Shirking, and Sabotage hence agencies, depends upon factors outside traditional conceptions of coercive authority underlying applications of the economics of the firm to public bureaucracies.