By R. P. Holmes, H. O. Goodman, D. G. Assimos (auth.), Rosemary Ryall, Renze Bais, Villis R. Marshall, Allan M. Rofe, Lynwood H. Smith, Valerie R. Walker (eds.)
The first overseas Symposium on Urolithiasis examine used to be held in Leeds, England, in 1968. The assembly used to be the 1st in what used to be to turn into a chain of symposia meant to assemble jointly a various staff of biochemists and physicians, urologists and engineers, with a standard curiosity in components affecting the formation of human urinary stones. on the grounds that its inception the sequence has threaded a peripatetic path backward and forward around the Atlantic Ocean, from Madrid in Spain, to Davos in Switzerland, to Williamsburg within the united states, to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Germany and Vancouver in Canada, below the guardianship of Drs Nordin, Cifuentes Delatte, Fleisch, Smith, Schwille, Dirks and Sutton, and their colleagues. In 1992, for the 1st time, the assembly moved to the southern hemisphere, to Cairns in Northeastern Australia. in contrast to so much earlier symposia, there have been no invited papers. in its place, the submitted abstracts have been allowed to dictate the content material of the assembly in order that the convention programme might replicate the flavor of present study within the box. to accomplish this, all abstracts have been graded anonymously via 3 referees to figure out their categorization as oral, subject poster, or common poster shows. The three hundred or so authorized absracts have been then allotted to seven plenary classes, 9 topic poster discus sion teams and 3 huge common poster sessions.
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Aliquots of these collections were stored at -70·C until analysis. The study was limited to a three-month period to avoid any seasonal influence on urinary excretion5. Assays Calcium was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Creatinine was measured by a kinetic picric-acid procedure using a centrifugal analyzer and a kit supplied by the manufacturer (IL). RESULTS The distribution of the mean Ca excretion is shown in Figure 1. 18 gig creatinine were considered hypercalciuric. A baseline resolution in the distribution was evident at this point.
DISCUSSION The early studies of intestinal oxalate transport indicated that transepithelial oxalate fluxes were passive 10 . It is now well documented, by in vitro experiments employing shortcircuited sheets of intestine 6-11 and membrane vesicle preparations 12,13, that net oxalate movement across both small and large intestine is a mediated process. A recent study which compared oxalate handling by the various segments of rabbit intestine showed that short-circuit preparations of jejunum, ileum, and proximal colon secrete oxalate, whereas the distal colon was unique in supporting a net absorptive flux.
Due to the dietary contribution to urinary oxalate, attention has been focused on absorptive mechanisms for oxalate across intestine and the relevance of oxalate movements in the opposite direction have been largely ignored. The reports 7,8 of existing secretory pathways for oxalate imply that the intestine has a role in the regulation of mass balance of oxalate; that is, the intestine may not operate in an exclusively oxalate-absorptive mode. Indeed, the intestinal tract may provide for a potentially important extra-renal route for oxalate excretion, particularly in the absence of renal function.