By Caroline O. N. Moser, Jeremy Holland

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In 1972, when Manley took over, the youths started to take politics more seriously, and "war" started. Boundaries developed between areas controlled by the Peoples National Party (PNP) and the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP), across which people couldn't move. J. Patterson. Zinc City residents talked about a period in 1980 when political gun violence escalated as JLP activists successfully ousted PNP residents from the local housing scheme, burning out resistors. Before this period of "pure killing," argued one resident of the scheme, "you could drop a pin downstairs and hear it" (see Figure 4).

Gang violence was particularly related to unemployment, lack of work and opportunities, and general hopelessness. " Men and women responded to this despair in different ways, the panels noted. While men turned to crime and violence, women turned more frequently to dependency on men. A young man in Greenland maintained that "because the mother's poor, they [daughters] grow up and see things that they want and can't afford it. Dem have to turn to a man to get it, and in turn they get pregnant. After that is like there is no hope.

The emphasis here seemed to be on people without family-support networks and without the necessary human capital to raise income, notably the elderly. Poor people No good housing Financial difficulties Lack of employment Lost of children Very, very poor people Blind lady Beggar Lives in a shack Elderly Zinc City: A Group of Young Women A similar reluctance to categorize anyone as "non-poor" emerged in Zinc City, although in this instance a mapping exercise brought out a perception of particular individuals as better off than the others.

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