By Alexander Counihan Thornton

It indicates how city agriculture can be utilized to quell social difficulties like unemployment and nutrition safeguard in a constructing kingdom. the writer offers an summary of the main city state in Africa, South Africa, and the way for a very long time politics impeded city agriculture. it truly is largely understood that city agriculture is a vital livelihood procedure one of the negative for foodstuff defense and source of revenue new release in constructing international locations. In South Africa, it really is rising as a technique for poverty relief. regardless of excessive unemployment, city agriculture looks much less powerful between South Africa's city bad families when put next to different constructing nations. the cause of this can be the position of a social welfare furnish approach which gives the foremost resource of loved ones source of revenue for many humans. The e-book explores the character and geographical quantity of city agriculture in a single of South Africa's poorest provinces, the jap Cape.

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Some observers argue for distinctions between commercial and subsistence production systems in cities, rather than introducing the two as a nondescript pair in definitions of the practice (Sahn, 1989; Rakodi, 1997; Mougeot, 1999). Highlighted in the following cases, distinctions may be useful in managing and organising, as well as understanding, the significance of urban agriculture at various levels. On a socio-economic level, commercial and subsistence qualifiers often reflect the needs and conditions of those practicing urban agriculture and tend to bypass historic, political and cultural factors that might limit or nurture the practice (Slater, 2001).

In order to satisfy the increasing need and availability of nutritious low-cost food for low-income urban households, several observers recommend local food production (Yeung, 1987: Dahlberg, 1999; Hamm and Baron, 1999; Husbands, 1999; Koc et aL, 1999; Armar-Klemesu, 2000; Foeken and Mwangi, 2000; Mougeot, 1994c, 2000a). Low-income African countries, in particular, experience the most pronounced "seasonal undulations" in food security (Sahn, 1989: 301). Further complicating seasonal stress is the deterioration of traditional coping mechanisms, such as subsistence food production and community networks of sharing (Sahn, 1989).

Indicated above, urban agriculture definitions tend to repeat similar socio-economic factors, which give the appearance of a model for urban food production, or, possibly, the basis of Webb's (1996) critique of the literature as offering general urban agriculture `universalisms'. However, Mougeot (2004: pers. ) argues that urban agriculture is too diverse a system, where several factors inhibit the creation of a model, such as variation in the size and location of this activity, how it is applied, as well as its use, which is not necessarily determined by income.

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