By Johan Bouma, Hans G. P. Jansen (auth.), Bas A. M. Bouman, Hans G. P. Jansen, Robert A. Schipper, Huib Hengsdijk, André Nieuwenhuyse (eds.)
This ebook displays the result of greater than ten years of cooperative study regarding Wageningen Agricultural college (y. l AU) within the Netherlands, the Tropical Agricultural examine and better schooling heart (CATIE; Centro Agron6mico Tropical de lnvestigaci6n y Ensefianza) in Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Ministry of Agriculture and cattle (MAG; Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadeda) as a part of the examine software on Sustainability in Agriculture (REPOSA) within the valuable American kingdom. the kind of cooperation was once strange because it all in favour of either learn and the schooling of scholars project both M. Sc. thesis initiatives or a software of functional education within the quite a few elements of learning land use. on account that investment used to be supplied by way of W AU, a excessive measure of medical autonomy was once created that has truly benefited the autonomous, clinical rigor of the paintings. Over the ten-year interval, this system has replaced from being a patchwork of varied insulated professional tasks, right into a actually interdisciplinary attempt, resulting in the improvement of cutting edge instruments for examining land use on a few geographical scales. those instruments are awarded during this booklet. along with CATIE and magazine, cooperation with different Costa Rican associate associations has been crucial from the start, and this means of interplay has additionally advanced significantly over time.
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6). As a result, the fiscal deficit did not improve between I995 and I996 (due to lower government income and higher debt service payments), remaining at around 5% of GDP. In 1997, new policies adopted to combat this new crisis, such as an increased flexibility in monetary policy (Mesalles, I998), resulted in an increase in GDP to just over 3%, a lower inflation of about II% and lower real interest rates of about 7%. However, both the current account (exports and imports of goods and services) and balance of payments (which includes financial flows as well) developed deficits of some 4% of GDP, reflecting increased economic activity (higher imports of capital goods).
Ruseman et al. (1994) developed a farm classification consisting of four categories. Of a total number of 9316 farms (with a total area of 285 316 ha), 6480 were classified as small farms between 0-20 ha (total area 46 254 ha), 1690 as medium farms between 20-50 ha (total area 48 472 ha), 1010 as extensive haciendas 24 with more than 50 ha and more than 50 head of cattle (total area 169 526 ha) and 136 as banana plantations (total area 21 064 ha). The above farm structure is still more 'or less valid, even though the importance of banana plantations has increased (in 1995 there were 187 plantations with a total area of 49 599 ha).
5 km for Costa Rica to 32 km2 for China. The present study is the first attempt to apply CLUE to smaller geographic units. 2 CLUE Modeling framework The CLUE modeling framework consists of three major modules: i) a multi-scale statistical description of present land use; ii) a general analysis of demand, and the definition of possible future demand pathways; and iii) a multi-scale allocation module, in which total demand in the study area, as defined in the demand scenarios, is spatially distributed over the study area using the statistical description.