By Sir Karl R. Popper, Sir John C. Eccles (auth.)

The challenge of the relation among bodies and our minds, and espe­ cially of the hyperlink among mind buildings and techniques at the one hand and psychological tendencies and occasions at the different is a very tricky one. with out pretending so as to foresee destiny advancements, either authors of this publication imagine it unbelievable that the matter will ever be solved, within the feel that we will particularly comprehend this relation. we predict that not more might be anticipated than to make a bit growth right here or there. now we have written this e-book within the desire that we have got been capable of achieve this. we're aware of the truth that what we've got performed is particularly conjectur­ al and intensely modest. we're conscious of our fallibility; but we think within the intrinsic worth of each human attempt to deepen our figuring out of our­ selves and of the area we are living in. We think in humanism: in human rationality, in human technology, and in different human achievements, notwithstanding fallible they're. we're unimpressed via the recurrent highbrow models that belittle technology and the opposite nice human achievements. an extra cause for penning this publication is that we either consider that the debunking of guy has long gone a long way sufficient - even too a ways. it truly is acknowledged that we needed to examine from Copernicus and Darwin that man's position within the universe isn't really so exalted or so particular as guy as soon as notion. that can good be.

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185) that it must be impossible for us ever to explain the functioning of the human brain in any detail since "any apparatus ... must possess a structure of a higher degree of complexity than is possessed by the objects" which it is trying to explain. Monod, referring to this kind of argument, points out that we are still "far ... from that ultimate border of knowledge". 10 How did the brain emerge? We can only guess. My guess is - see section 5 above - that it was the emerging human language which created the selection pressure under which the cerebral cortex emerged, and with it, the human consciousness of self.

9 Then there is the Cartesian view that consciousness arises only with man, and that animals are inanimate automata; a view which is clearly pre-evolutionary. I suggest that we have reason to accept the view that there are lower and higher stages of consciousness. ) If the fact that animals cannot speak is a sufficient reason to deny consciousness to them, it would also be a sufficient reason to deny it to babies at an age before they learn to speak. Moreover, there is good evidence in favour of the theory that higher animals dream (pace Malcolm and Wittgenstein).

Like all material bodies, they are processes; and like some other material bodies (clouds, for example) they are open systems of molecules: systems that exchange some of their constituent parts with their environment. They belong to the universe ofphysical entities, or states of physical things, or physical states. The entities of the physical world - processes, forces, fields of forces interact among one another, and therefore with material bodies. Thus we conjecture them to be real (in the sense discussed in section 4 above) even though their reality remains conjectural.

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