By G.C. Griffiths
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Additional info for The Phylogenetic Classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha: With Special Reference to the Structure of the Male Postabdomen
I suggest that in the groundplans of the Syrphidea and Schizophora the aedeagal apodeme was rod-like (bacilliform), attached to the body wall only where it articulates with the base of the aedeagus. This condition is shown by all Syrphidea, as far as I am aware, and by many groups of Schizophora. The presence of any sclerotized link or fusion between the aedeagal apodeme and the hypandrium or body wall between the hypandrial arms, is treated as an apomorphous condition in my analysis. Such conditions occur widely among some groups of Schizophora, and have probably been evolved independently on many occasions.
In view of the above considerations, I reject all conclusions based on inferences from the arrangement of the sclerites of the mature adult, and proceed first by considering whether there is ontogenetic evidence for rotation of segments preceding the hypopygium in the Schizophora. Relevant information is given by SCHRADER (1927) and GLEICHAUF (1936). After considering the evidence for Schizophora (on which the views of earlier authors were largely based), I then support my argument with the new information now available on circumversion in the Platypezidae (KESSEL & MAGGIONCALDA I 968a, KESSEL I 968b).
4 - 8. 4. Rhagio sp. (Rhagionidae), hypopygium (0') in ventral view. 5. Rhagio sp. (the same individual as shown in fig. 4), hypopygium (0') in dorsal view. 6. Atefestus pulicarius (FALLEN) (Empididae, Atelestinae), hypopygium (0') in ventral view. 7. Atefestus pulicarius (FALLEN), hypopygium (0') in dorsal view. 8. Agromyza phragmitidis HENDEL (Agromyzidae), ejaculatory bulb and apodeme (0'). 33 which are characterized by a small and usually cleft epandrium. He interprets as plesiomorphous the condition shown by other groups (such as the Hybotinae, Ocydromiinae and Tachydromiinae), in which the 'epandrium' covers the greatest part of the genital segment and extends laterally to overreach the ventral surface.