By Nimrod Luz

The Mamluk urban within the heart East deals an interdisciplinary examine of city heritage, city event, and the character of urbanism within the area below the guideline of the Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517). The booklet makes a speciality of 3 less-explored yet politically major towns within the Syrian zone - Jerusalem, Safad (now in Israel), and Tripoli (now in Lebanon) - and provides a brand new procedure and method for figuring out old towns. Drawing on different textual resources and extensive box surveys, Nimrod Luz adroitly finds the nature of the Mamluk urban in addition to a number of facets of urbanism within the zone, setting up the pre-modern urban of the center East as a sound and necessary lens in which to review a variety of topics reminiscent of structure, paintings heritage, background, and politics of the equipped atmosphere. As a part of this process, Luz considers the strategies during which Mamluk discourses of urbanism have been conceptualized after which inscribed within the city atmosphere as concrete expressions of architectural layout, spatial making plans, and public memorialization.

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This intriguing development may well have been connected to an Umayyad decision to transform Jerusalem into their religious-political capital; see A. Elad, “The Status of Jerusalem during the Umayyad Period,” Hamizrach Hechadash 44 (2004): 17–68. G. J. Wightman, The Walls of Jerusalem. From the Canaanites to the Mamluks (Sydney, 1993), 237–258. 32 Introduction of numerous ethnicities. This situation is aptly transcribed in its urban layout. The city was multifocal, boasting several important centers.

Humphreys, From Saladin to the Mongols (Albany, 1977), 275. 33 On the eve of the Mamluk period, Jerusalem remained a multifocal city. It harbored several religious, political, and commercial centers. The state of the walls was indicative of the state and status of the city in the transition period of Ayyu¯bid-Crusader-Mamluk rule: partly in ruin and mostly dysfunctional. The political events that preceded the Mamluk sultanate’s direct rule of the city led to a demographic and economic decline, an unsustainable and unsecured environment, and complete chaos.

Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies (New York, 1988), xxii. D. F. Eickelman, Moroccan Islam. Tradition and Society in a Pilgrimage Center (Austin and London, 1976), 3. C. Geertz, Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia (Chicago, 1971). 39 In his seminal work on the city, Weber focused primarily on Europe but also explained why Oriental (as opposed to Occidental) cities usually failed to make the cut: An urban community in the full meaning of the word appears as a general phenomenon only in the Occident.

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