By Christine Meisner Rosen

Chicago, Boston, and Baltimore all suffered negative fires within the overdue 19th or early 20th century. citizens of those towns agreed that the destruction because of the fires supplied them with a different chance to enhance their inadequately equipped towns. This e-book examines those rebuildings, utilizing each one to envision in shut aspect the method of urban development. the big inhabitants development and monetary growth of the 19th century necessitated that each element of the city setting be redeveloped. but, at nearly each level of urban progress, the success of environmental version lagged considerably in the back of the necessity for switch. The leading edge beneficial properties of this e-book will make it precious to all readers attracted to urban progress. by means of drawing on a number of fields of the social sciences, the writer develops a conceptual framework for explaining the limitations to environmental development; and during the ancient narrative, the usefulness of this framework is validated.

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Leaseholders also had to face the risk that they might lose their investment if they could not negotiate a new lease at an acceptable rate in the future. Structural improvement also entailed extra, personal sacrifices for those property holders who occupied their own buildings by forcing them to undertake the expensive and inconvenient step of temporarily relocating while the improvement was being made. In addition, owners who had to rebuild before some of their tenants' leases expired had to absorb the cost of removing the tenants from the building.

Thus this solution to the problem was of little use in the city. Heavily trussed vaults provided a possible alternative answer to the problem of carrying roofs across large open spaces. Unfortunately, they could be effectively used only to increase the amount offloorspace in one-story buildings. Thus they were economically feasible only in the construction of churches and railway passenger stations and factories in peripheral areas where land was relatively cheap. 22 The modern solution to this particular technological problem required The Barriers to Structural Improvement 27 the emergence of new theories of structural engineering.

Water and sewerage were not the only public services in America's rapidly growing cities that required extensive environmental redevelopment. In addition, steam, gas, and electric power generating plants had to be established and distribution apparatuses built to convey the power. Again, as the demand for mechanical power increased and technology improved, the systems had to be upgraded by the renovation and extension of distribution grids and the construction of new generating plants. Since different companies and government agencies built these facilities over the years, competing systems also had to be integrated and standardized in order to eliminate inefficient, redundant, and incompatible equipment and achieve economies of scale.

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