By Robert A. Lamb (auth.), Robert M. Krug (eds.)
Influenza virus is a vital human pathogen, often inflicting frequent affliction and an important demise. a lot has been realized concerning the constitution of the virus, its genetic version, its mode of gene expression and replication, and its interplay with the host immu nologic process. this information has the potential for resulting in ap proaches for the keep an eye on of influenza virus. furthermore, examine on influ enza virus has resulted in very important advances in eukaryotic molecular and mobile biology and in immunology. a tremendous concentration of this e-book is the molecular biology of influenza virus. the 1st bankruptcy, which serves as an creation, describes the constitution of every of the genomic RNA segments and their encoded seasoned teins. the second one bankruptcy discusses the molecular mechanisms concerned about the expression and replication of the viral genome. as well as different topics, this bankruptcy bargains with some of the most unique positive factors of influenza virus, particularly the original mechanism wherein viral messenger RNA synthesis is initiated via primers deaved from newly synthesized host-cell RNAs within the nudeus. one of the most important accomplish ments in influenza virus examine has been the delineation of the 3 dimensional constitution of the 2 floor glycoproteins of the virus, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. This has supplied a structural foundation for mapping either the antigenic websites and the areas thinking about the key organic capabilities of those molecules.
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Extra resources for The Influenza Viruses
The hydrophobic N-terminus of HA2 is separated from the C-terminus of HA l by 22 A, indicating that a conformational change accompanied the eleavage of the two molecules. This hydrophobic fusion peptide in each monomer is tucked into the trimer interface ~35 A from the lipid bilayer. , 1981; Wiley and Skehel, 1987). , 1988). Six N-linked carbohydrate chains are attached to HA l and one chain to HA2. All the carbohydrate chains are of the complex type, except for two on HAll which are of the high mannose type (Ward and Dopheide, 1980).
1980), the HA l and HA2 identity is 35% and 53%, respectively. Thus, the B HA sequence is somewhat removed from, but stiIl homologous to, the influenza A HA sequences. , 1983a). H. Influenza e Virus Glycoprotein In contrast to the two distinet glycoproteins of influenza A and B viruses, which exhibit HA and NA aetivities, only a single type of glycoprotein has been deteeted in influenza C virions. This glyeoprotein displays receptor-binding aetivity for 9-0-acetyl-N-aeetylneuraminic GENES AND PROTEINS OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES 21 acid, a penetration (fusion) funetion, and a reeeptor-destroying aetivity, whieh is a neuraminate-O-aeetylesterase.
A. 18) eatalyzes the eleavage of the a-ketosidie linkage between a terrninal sialie acid and an adjaeent D-galaetose or D-galaetosamine (Gottsehalk, 1957). The funetional role of NA in viru s replieation has not been established with great eertainty, although it appears to be related to the ability of the virus to free itself from sialie aeid-eontaining struetures. NA aetivity may permit transport of the virus through mucin present in the respiratory traet, enabling the virus to find its way to the target epithelial eelIs.