Content:
Chapter 1 Theoretical points of the chemistry of the hydroxyl staff (pages 1–50): R. F. W. Bader
Chapter 2 Nucleophilic assault by means of hydroxide and alkoxide ions (pages 51–131): Colin A. Fyfe
Chapter three loose radical and electrophilic hydroxylation (pages 133–191): D. F. Sangster
Chapter four Formation of hydroxyl teams through oxymetallation, oxidation, and aid (pages 193–251): I. R. L. Barker
Chapter five Electrochemistry of the hydroxyl workforce (pages 253–293): Henning Lund
Chapter 6 Detection and resolution of hydroxyl teams (pages 295–326): Sidney Siggia, J. Gordon Hanna and Thomas R. Stengle
Chapter 7 Acidity and inter? and intra?molecular H?bonds (pages 327–392): C. H. Rochester
Chapter eight Directing and activating results (pages 393–452): D. A. R. Happer and J. Vaughan
Chapter nine Electrophilic assaults at the hydroxyl workforce (pages 453–503): Pentti Salomaa, Alpo Kankaanpera and Kalevi Pihlaja
Chapter 10 Oxidation and aid of phenols (pages 505–592): Mihailo Lj. Mihailovic and Zivorad Cekovic
Chapter eleven Displacement of hydroxyl teams (pages 593–639): Geoffrey W. Brown
Chapter 12 The dehydration of alcohols (pages 641–718): H. Knozinger
Chapter thirteen Uncatalysed rearrangements concerning the hydroxyl staff (pages 719–754): Elliot N. Marvell and William Whalley
Chapter 14 organic formation and reactions of the hydroxyl team (pages 755–796): S. ok. Erickson, J. Schadelin, U. Schmeling, H.?H. Schott, V. Ullrich and Hj. Staudinger
Chapter 15 Syntheses and makes use of of 18O?labelled hydroxylic compounds (pages 797–833): S. Oae and S. Tamagaki
Chapter sixteen Photochemistry of alcohols and phenols (pages 835–936): Hans?Dieter Becker
Chapter 17 The radiation chemistry of the hydroxyl workforce (pages 937–1000): R. A. Basson
Chapter 18 security of the hydroxyl staff (pages 1001–1044): H. M. Flowers
Chapter 19 The mass spectra of hydroxyl compounds (pages 1045–1085): R. Graham Cooks
Chapter 20 Hydroxide?alkoxide ion equilibria and their effect on chemical reactions (pages 1087–1115): Juhani Murto

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Example text

Kinetics and mxchanism . 2. Investigations of intermcdiatcs . . VII. :DNTS VIII. REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . 95 101 106 107 113 113 113 113 114 116 118 119 119 121 124 124 1. INTRODUCTION I n reactions involving nucleophilic attack by hydroxide (OH)- and alkoxide (OR)- ions, a critical feature is the rather obvious observation that the former contains a second ionizable proton. The loss of this proton can give rise to further reaction after the initial nucleophilic attack by the hydroxide ion.

Have the dimensions of electronic charge. Each f;,, is The numerically equal to the numbcr of point charges which, when placed at the B nucleus, exert the same field at the A nucleus as does the density in the ith molecular orbital. T h e electronic contribution to the force on the A nucleus at any value of R may, therefore, be equated to an effective number of charges situated at the B nucleus, this number being the sum of the partial forces. g. equation (11-6). This suggests that the limiting value of each individuald,, should be taken as the number of electrons in the ith molecular orbital which correlate with the B atom for large values of R, NiB T h e partial forces provide an absolute measure of the binding ability of an orbital density i n terms of the number of point charges at the B nucleus which produce a field at A equivalent to that exerted by the actual density distribution.

The molecular orbitals numbers one and two are is atomic-like orbitals centred on the oxygen and carbon nuclei respectively and hence are similar to the l o orbitals in CH or OH or to the l o and 20 orbitals in CO. The major component of molecular orbital number three is from the 2s orbital on oxygen. Thus it strongly resembles thc 20 orbital in the diatomic hydrides (see Figure 5) or the 30 orbital in CO. I n all three cases the orbital density is strongly polarized towards the nuclei bonded to the oxygen as indicated by the contour with the shape of a half-m,ocn.

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