By Charles Stephenson

The Island of Malta occupies a pivotal place within the Mediterranean, forming an outpost among North Africa and the delicate underbelly of Europe. Such has been its strategic significance during the years that it has develop into the most fortified locations on this planet. Following the winning defence of the island in the course of the nice Siege of 1565, the Knights Hospitaller outfitted new partitions and fortifications. those defences failed whilst Napoleon occupied Malta in 1798, and the island used to be retaken by way of the British in 1800. From this aspect onwards, Malta’s defences have been modernised in the course of the nineteenth century and the island’s ultimate try got here in the course of global battle II. This publication examines a lot of these assorted sorts of fortification from the sixteenth to the twentieth century.

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Thus, to the extent that subjective interpretations of the world are built into the models of the instrumentalist, such models could also be used to describe the behavior of decision makers suffering from cognitive closure, selective perceptions, misinformation and so on. Rational choice models of international politics and foreign policy based on game theory and expected-utility theory are grounded in the concept of instrumental rationality. g, Bueno de Mesquita 1981a; Bueno de Mesquita, Newman and Rabushka 1985; Bueno de Mesquita and Lalman 1992).

More specifically, the historical cases of the Iran/ Iraq War (1980) and World War I (1914) will be explained - scientifically - on the basis of empirical uniformities established through large-scale, quantitative analyses. As Hempel (1966:68) notes, explanations of individual events may be provided through inductive subsumption under probabilistic laws, as well as through deductive subsumption under universal laws. These explanations will demonstrate that the cases of the Iran/Iraq War and World War I are specific instances of a set of patterns that have appeared in a much larger number of cases.

See Gochman and Maoz (1984:595-599) for distributions in both dyadic and multistate dispute participation and for a description of the militarized interstate dispute database. 22 Overview work, suggests the importance of a subset population defined by long-term conflicts. These conflict-prone dyads, or "enduring rivals," account for a disproportionately large amount of the violence which occurs in the interstate system. Two analyses by Goertz and Diehl (1992, 1993) note that long-term rival dyads are responsible for roughly half of the wars, violent territorial changes, and militarized disputes that occur in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

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