By Marijke van der Veen (auth.), Dr. Marijke van der Veen (eds.)

This quantity provides a very new and extremely large physique of knowledge in regards to the starting place of agriculture and plant use in Africa. all of the proof is especially contemporary and for the 1st time all this archaeobotanical proof is introduced jointly in a single quantity (at current the data is unpublished or released in lots of disparate journals, confer­ ence studies, monographs, web site reviews, and so forth. ). Early courses all in favour of the origins of African plant domestication relied nearly solely on inferences made up of the modem distribution of the wild progenitors of African cultivars; there existed almost no archaeobotanical facts at the moment. at the same time lately because the early Nineteen Nineties direct facts for the transition to farming and the relative roles of indigenous as opposed to close to jap plants was once missing for many of Africa. This quantity alterations that and provides quite a lot of ex­ bringing up new facts, together with case reviews from Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Uganda, Egypt, and Sudan, which diversity in date from 8000 BP to the current day. the quantity advert­ attire subject matters similar to the position of untamed plant assets in hunter-gatherer and farming com­ munities, the origins of agriculture, the rural origin of advanced societies, long-distance alternate, the trade of meals and plants, and the human impression on neighborhood vege­ tation-all key problems with present examine in archaeology, anthropology, agronomy, ecol­ ogy, and monetary history.

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Wet, J. M. J. de (1978). Systematics and evolution of Sorghum sect. Sorghum (Gramineae). American Journal of Botany 65, 477-484. Wet, J. M. J. de, and Harlan J. R. 1971. The origin and domestication of Sorghum bicolor. Economic Botany 25, 128-135. Wet, J. M. J. de, Harlan, J. R. and Price, E. G. ( 1976). Variability in Sorghum bicolor. In (J. R. Harlan, J. M. J. de Wet and A. B. L. ) Origins of African Plant Domestication. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, pp. 453-463. APPENDIX 1 Flora of site E-75-6, Nabta Playa based on all plant remains: identification of seeds and fruits K.

An underground hearth, a charred trunk of wood, a milling stone and laminar arrowheads were recovered from this sector. Ashy deposits were separated from both sectors (96E and 96F/l) within the recovered hearths and around some of the potholes. These sediments were particularly rich in plant macro-remains. 3. Abu Ballas, Eastpans The site lies within the Egyptian Sahara to the east of Abu Ballas ridge. The region lies within a depression in the Western Desert at 40 m below sea level. The site was discovered in 1995 by members of the ACACIA project directed by Dr.

Fahmy (1995) confirmed this conclusion when he identified spikelets of wild origin (field weed in cultivated plots) of this plant from predynastic Hierakonpolis (3800--3500 BC). The recovered grains are elliptical in outline; the maximum width is in the middle, the ventral side is flat, and the dorsal side is concave. It is an annual grass; it grows mainly on moist ground and canal banks, and is a common weed (Boulos and El-Hadidi, 1989). It is widespread in the tropics and in warm temperate regions of the world (Bor and Guest, 1968).

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