By Frank Robert Palmer

A protracted confirmed and very popular account of all points of the English verb taking account of contemporary paintings on demanding, section and element, and of the author's personal examine. Theoretical dialogue is saved to a minimal, however the arguments are continuously awarded inside of a latest theoretical framework.

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These considerations suggest that they are important. The fact that the full verbs BE and HAVE also have these properties is not, perhaps, a strong counter-argument. Such verbs are often idio­ syncratic in languages and it would not be very strange if they adopted the characteristics of the auxiliaries, when they them­ selves were lexically identical with them. A second point concerns the paradigms and the possible sequence of forms. Although has been talking is possible *is having talked is not.

Saw we them? THE AUXILIARIES Once again the forms of Do I like it? Did we see them? DO are used: The test shows again that WANT and Do I want to ask you? Did he begin to cry? * Want I to ask you? * Began he to cry? 19 BEGIN are not auxiliary verbs: There is a different kind of inversion that does not require an auxiliary verb, as illustrated by: Down came a blackbird. Into the room walked John. In the corner stood an armchair. The essential feature of these is that there is an adverbial in sentence-initial position .

These are not all strictly examples of deictic shift. But they are all concerned with the status of the proposition expressed from the point of view of the speaker. Rather different, perhaps, but still involving time/tense relations and the speaker is what may be called 'displaced' time marking as in ( Lakoff 1 970:839) : The animal you saw was my dog. The man you'll be talking to will be the Mayor. The sentences are quite normal even if the animal still is my dog, or the man already is the Mayor.

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