By A. J. Downs and C. J. Adams (Auth.)
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Additional resources for The Chemistry of Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine. Pergamon Texts in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 7
1133 FORMATION OF THE ELEMENTARY HALOGENS rods which extend through the cover of the cell; the anodes, parallel to, and close to, the mercury-brine interface, are perforated or grooved to facilitate the release of chlorine, which is removed from the cell either via an outlet in the cover or via an enlarged anolyte overflow connection. The sodium amalgam flows continuously to the decomposer, which may be regarded as a secondary cell where the amalgam becomes the anode to a shortcircuited graphite (or iron) cathode in an electrolyte of sodium hydroxide solution.
Vol. 1, p. 668, Interscience (1963). Other processes that have been exploited in recent years for the technical production of chlorine32»33'46 are set out in Table 4. Perhaps the most significant change has been the increasing production of hydrogen chloride from chlorination or dehydrochlorination processes (as in the manufacture of solvents and synthetic resins), which has revived the problem of regenerating chlorine from hydrogen chloride: electrolysis of hydrochloric acid, catalytic oxidation of hydrogen chloride or metallic chlorides using air or oxygen, and the formation and catalytic decomposition of chlorosulphonic acid, CISO3H, represent, up to the present time, the principal lines of technical development.
90 M . F . F o x , Quart. Rev. Chem. Soc. 2 4 (1970) 565. 91 J. W. Linnett and M. H. Booth, Nature, 199 (1963) 1181. 92 N . , and J. S. MacKenzie, Advances in Chemistry Series, 3 6 (1962) 9 8 ; S. Aditya and J. E . Willard, / . Chem. Phys. 4 4 (1966) 8 3 3 ; E . Wassermann, W. E . Falconer and W. A . Yager, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 7 2 (1968) 2 4 8 . 1148 CHLORINE, BROMINE, IODINE AND ASTATINE! A. J. DOWNS AND C. J. ADAMS chlorine in its excited (2Λ/2) state93, though attempts to detect the atoms trapped in solid, non-polar matrices have failed94.