By Terry Borden, Richard A. Cox

Functional and updated, TECHNICIANS consultant TO PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS, sixth variation presents readers with the main entire creation to PLCs on the market this day. idea, undefined, directions, programming, install, startup, and troubleshooting are mentioned intimately in a manner that's effortless to appreciate and apply.
In addition, supplementary programming examples using the PLC directions within the publication supply readers a greater figuring out of some of the directions and the way they are often mixed to create uncomplicated but potent regulate common sense strategies for todays international.

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When installing shielded cable, it is important that the shield only be grounded at one end. If the shield is grounded at both ends, a ground loop is created, which can introduce ground currents that may result in faulty input signals and/or operation of the processor. As a properly grounded I/O rack is already connected to earth ground through an equipment grounding conductor, the shield should be terminated at the I/O rack, not at the device end. , Inc. Figure 2–37 shows the shield of a shielded cable connected to the I/O rack frame.

The increased difficulty in wiring is caused by the closer proximity of the wiring terminals and the increased number of wires in the wiring harness. AC Discrete Input Module Figure 2–7 shows a simplified diagram of one of the input circuits of a typical AC discrete input module. Resistors are used to drop the incoming voltage; then a bridge rectifier is used to convert the AC input voltage to DC. Next, a filtering circuit is used to condition the DC and guard against electrical noise. Electrical noise can cause a short-duration DC pulse that is sometimes interpreted by the processor as a closed signal.

Discrete I/O modules operate on digital, or ON and OFF signals, whereas analog I/O operates on a variety of signal levels and types. Input and output modules are available in a variety of voltages and normally can control 8, 16, or 32 individual input or output devices. Optical coupling, or isolation, is used to protect the low-­voltage (5 V DC) side of the processor from the line-voltage input and output signals that can be as high as 240 V. AC output modules typically use Triacs for switching ON and OFF the actual output devices.

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