By Carl A. Lawrence

Surface-Active Quaternary Ammonium Germicides accumulates within the pages of 1 quantity a evaluation of the heritage, chemistry, biology, and alertness of the quaternary ammonium salts that experience seemed in print thus far. The quaternary ammonium surface-active antiseptics have secured a well known and demanding position within the fields of medicinal and normal disinfection up to now decade. those compounds are of specific curiosity in that, not like such a lot different disinfectants, they express not just germicidal motion but in addition surface-active, detergent, and wetting houses.

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The lauric acid and myristic 52 SURFACE-ACTIVE QUATERNARY AMMONIUM GERMICIDES acid ester derivatives described by Epstein were subsequently found by Penniston and Hedrick164'165'166 to be effective detergents and germicides for washing dirty poultry eggs. The use of relatively high concentrations of quaternary ammonium solutions, instead of soap, for cleaning unwashed skin and accidental wounds, will be the subject of another section of this review (page 147). Combinations of alkaline detergents and nonionic surface-active agents with quaternary ammonium germicides will also be discussed later.

Of 10% potassium iodide solution and 5 ml. of dilute hydrochloric acid. Ten milliliters of 10% zinc sulfate solution is then added and titrated with N/100 sodium thiosulf ate, using starch as the indicator. The weight of the quaternary ammonium salt is calculated by the formula (50 ml. N/100 Na 2 S 2 0 3 ) a? , a factor representing the molecular weight of compound tested. The amount of germicide found will be not less than 97% nor more than 103% of the original as calculated to the anhydrous substance.

In studies on the influence of wetting agents on various antiseptics, Fisher 155 observed the enhancing effects of surface tension reducing agents upon mercuric chloride, mercury oxycyanide, chloramine T, argyrol and potassium permanganate. Little if any increase in germicidal activity was noted when the nonionic, anionic, or cationic surface tension depressants were added to phenol, cresol, or tincture of iodine. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 51 156 157158 attributed the irregular results obKlarmann and Wright ' tained in the phenol coefficient tests on quaternary ammonium germicides to the powerful surface depressing action of the compounds.

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