By Bernhard Rensch (auth.), Prof. Dr. Wolf Engels (eds.)

Evolution of Castes in bugs l BERNHARD RENSCH The evolution of organisms within the succession of generations has been primarilly completed throughout the visual appeal of recent hereditary versions with minor deviations besides the advance of sturdy constructions and services. damaging mutants have been eliminated both instantly or within the next generations throughout the means of average choice whereas unharmful or valuable ones often survived. As this strategy persisted, many new races and species constructed which possessed constructions and features of a rational nature and which grew to become more and more self sustaining from their atmosphere. those evolutionary traits have been additionally promoted via both geographical, ecological, physiological or genetical isolation of populations. In a few phylogenetic strains, there happened a rise within the variety of cells because of extra mobile divisions within the morphogenesis of constructions. This spread out the chance for the improvement of the department of labour inside mobile teams resulting in extra advanced and for that reason extra winning services of tissues and organs. another development within the version of a species to its surroundings used to be made attainable via specialization for convinced services of complete members or teams of individuals.

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1982) have described examples of polydomy in facultatively polygynous Leptothorax species. It has also not yet been determined whether all young queens in these species are able to found colonies alone, or whether there is a fraction which prefers to join existing colonies. And we do not know whether such queens are accepted only in their mother colony, or in alien colonies as well. Using electrophoretic studies, Douwes et al. (1987) provided evidence for a comparatively high relatedness among 41 queens in polygynous nests of Leptothorax acervorum, suggesting that young queens mainly are adopted in their mother nests.

She could, in this way, prevent pupation of larvae to workers until hibernation, but after hibernation these larvae had 46 gained queen potentiality, a phenomenon to which I will have to refer again in the following section. However, not only the original food which is distributed by the workers among the brood may influence caste formation. There are many studies revealing that special food substances are provided by the workers in the form of glandular secretions. This is most obvious in all the cases where young workers must be present in a colony and care for the larvae which otherwise yield only workers.

Such a system is unique to ants, we do not know of any other social Hymenoptera forming polygynous supercolonies. 3 Facultatiyely Polygynous Species A group of ants, with numerous species of different subfamilies, exhibit a "facultative polygyny" (Buschinger 1968, 1974b) which means that - in one and the same population - there exist monogynous and polygynous colonies. Both kinds of colonies are reproductive, yield sexuals. In several species - like Leptothorax acervorum or Myrmica rubra - it is well established that young queens are able, at least occasionally, to found their colonies like queens of the first group.

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