By L’Hocine Yahia, Jorma Ryhänen (auth.), Ph. D. L. Yahia (eds.)

Shape reminiscence alloy implants or "smart biomaterial" have already been utilized in people for twenty years in chosen international locations. regulations within the use of biomaterials in residing organisms being lowered through the global now using SMA implants proceed to extend within the fields of vascular and orthopaedic surgical procedure, minimally invasive surgical procedure and drug supply platforms. This booklet is to supply a state-of-the-art of SMA implants and units. For the 1st time long term scientific stories and methods of SMA biocompatibility are presented.

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5 I-lg/cm2/week a weak reaction. 5 I-lg/cm2/week for metal items designed for prolonged skin contact. The allergic response to nickel is believed by some investigators to be limited to contact with the dermis, but it might also stimulate an allergic response in the deep tissue. Rapid elimination of nickel was found by Merritt et al. by showing that almost all injected nickel is eliminated in the urine in 48 h [50]. Nickel was present only at control levels in the urine, serum, red cells or organs 1 week after injection.

Femoral osteotomies of 40 rats were fixed with either NiTi or stainless steel (StSt) intramedullary nails [70]. The rats were killed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 26 and 60 weeks. Bone healing was examined with radiographs, peripheral quantitative computed tomography and histologically. The corrosion of the implants was studied by electron microscopy. Analysis of trace metals from several organs was done by GF-AAS or ICP-AES. More healed bone unions were found in the NiTi than the StSt group at early (4 weeks and 8 weeks) time points.

The ion release from these ternary alloys, if any, has not yet been established. The toxic potency of different ions or compounds is not clear. 1 mg [36]. It maintains the equilibrium of multiple enzyme activities. Ingestion or inhalation of higher amounts of metallic Mo particles may disturb the copper and sulfate metabolism in experimental animals and humans, or induce emaciation and gout symptoms. Cu is also an essential element and is a component of some essential enzyme systems such as tyrosinase and cytochrome oxidase.

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