By M. Huba, S. Skogestad, M. Fikar, M. Hovd et .al

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The situation does not appear to have improved more recently, as per latest report (Overschee and Moor, 2000) that 80% of PID controllers are badly tuned; 30% of PID controllers operate in manual with another 30% of the controlled loops increasing the short term variability of the process to be controlled (typically due to too strong integral action). Also, it is stated that 25% of all PID controller loops use default factory settings, implying that they have not been tuned at all. One clearly cannot expect good performance from a controller that has never been tuned.

What set of performance measures should be chosen for a given process so that the scope for improvement in performance is correctly highlighted? 2. How can one arrange a set of performance measures to figure out the improvement potential without disturbing the running system? Is the controller ‘healthy’ ? 30 Selvanathan Sivalingam and Morten Hovd Disturbances Is the control loop healthy? Feedforward controller Reference signal _ Feedback controller Measured Unmeasured Process variable + Actuator Process Sensor + Measurement noise Fig.

It is then possible to visualize the relation between the timing of frequency emerging and disappearing in the signal, thus providing more precise and deeper insights into the process behaviour. Wavelet analysis has been successfully applied to plant-wide disturbance (oscillation) detection or diagnosis by Matsuo et al (2004). 6 Pre-filtering Data All methods presented above may be ineffective for noisy data, and both Miao and Seborg (1999) and Forsman and Stattin (1999) discuss pre-filtering the data with a low pass filter to reduce the noise.

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