By David Deming
Technological know-how is a residing, natural job, the that means and realizing of that have advanced incrementally over human historical past. This ebook, the 1st in a approximately chronological sequence, explores the improvement of the method and significant principles of technological know-how, in ancient context, from precedent days to the decline of classical civilizations round three hundred A.D. It contains info particular to the histories of specialised sciences together with astronomy, medication and physics--along with Roman engineering and Greek philosophy. It heavily describes the contributions of such members as Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the good, Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy, Seneca, Pliny the Elder, and Galen.
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Additional info for Science and Technology in World History, Vol. 1: The Ancient World and Classical Civilization
When a girl, playing with a water-clock of shining brass, puts the oriﬁce of the pipe upon her comely hand, and dips the water-clock into the yielding mass of silvery water — the stream does not then ﬂow into the vessel, but the bulk of the air inside ... ”253 The signiﬁcance of Empedocles’ experiment is controversial. ”255 But Benjamin Farrington (1891–1974) concluded that Empedocles’ experiments were an important step toward the eventual development of an experimental method. ”256 Thus, Empedocles showed that the senses could provide information on the hidden parts of nature, and therefore were an important tool in the acquisition of knowledge.
Some came to the Olympic games to buy and sell, seeking riches. Others come to compete, seeking honor. But the best came merely to observe and learn. Accordingly, in Pythagorean philosophy men were ranked from base to noble. The lowest were those who loved wealth and material possessions. Intermediate were the seekers of status and honor among men. ”173 The Pythagorean brotherhood practiced communal living. ”174 The Pythagoreans also held their doctrines and teachings secret. ”175 The need for secrecy arose from the Pythagorean recognition that knowledge could be used both for man’s liberation and for his destruction.
It was ... ”180 In Metaphysics, Aristotle said that the Pythagoreans even sought to describe abstract psychological principles such as justice and reason in terms of numbers. Contemporaneously with these philosophers and before them, the so-called Pythagoreans, who were the ﬁrst to take up mathematics, not only advanced this study, but also having been brought up in it they thought its principles were the principles of all things. 181 Prior to Pythagoras and Thales, mathematics had been largely an empirical science.