By Pooyan Sakian
This booklet discusses a few demanding situations confronted via designers of instant receivers, given issues because of the shrinking of digital and cellular units circuitry into ever-smaller sizes and the ensuing problems at the manufacturability, creation yield, and the tip rate of the goods. The authors describe the impression of procedure expertise at the functionality of the tip product and equip RF designers with countermeasures to deal with such difficulties. The mechanisms in which those difficulties come up are analyzed intimately and novel recommendations are supplied, together with layout directions for receivers with robustness to method adaptations and info of circuit blocks that receive the necessary functionality level.
- Describes RF receiver frontends and their construction blocks from a method- and circuit-level perspective;
- Provides system-level research of a popular RF receiver frontend with robustness to procedure variations;
- Includes info of CMOS circuit layout at 60GHz and reconfigurable circuits at 60GHz;
- Covers millimeter-wave circuit layout with robustness to procedure variations.
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Extra info for RF-frontend design for process-variation-tolerant receivers
Therefore, part of the substrate losses are caused by the eddy currents induced in the substrate as a result of the time-varying magnetic fields around inductors or transmission lines which penetrate into the substrate. The rest of the substrate losses are accounted for by RSi which stands for the silicon substrate resistance. CSi stands for the silicon substrate capacitance. Cox is the oxide capacitance between the metal layer and 46 3 Layout and Measurements at 60 GHz Grounded shield: bottom metal Top Metal Vias to substrate Cox RSi SiO2 CSi Silicon substrate Fig.
If the wavelength of the signal is comparable to the dimensions of interconnects, they cannot be treated as lumped elements anymore. Therefore, interconnect lines with dimensions comparable to the wavelength of the signal must be implemented by transmission lines with known measured characteristics, modeled with distributed circuits, or simulated with electromagnetic (EM) simulators. The wavelength of a 60 GHz electromagnetic wave in free space is 5 mm. 5 mm, respectively. As a rule of thumb any line in the order of one tenth of a wavelength is regarded as distributed.
Utilizing siliconon-insulator (SOI) technologies with 1 kO cm substrate resistivity is another solution which can provide high-Q passive components and low-loss transmission lines . But, the additional cost due to the required extra lithography steps is the main drawback of this option. 1 Layout Challenges 45 Fig. 4 Lumped physical models for: (a) a spiral inductor on silicon substrate, (b) a transmission line on silicon substrate effects . However, the etch results in additional processing cost and causes reliability concerns such as long-term mechanical stability.