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Producer services' share of the labor force has grown by over 50 percent since 1959. , 1981). The nonprofit sector has been responsible for a larger share of the shift, but while the rate of nonprofit growth is projected to almost stabilize, the producer services sector is the only one projected for more than a 10 percent increase in the current share of employment by 1990 (Personick, 1981). There is some evidence to suggest that producer services are already About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files.

There is at least tentative evidence from early research on banks and department stores in New York City that these industries, which traditionally offered long career ladders that progressed from sales or teller positions into the management hierarchy, are increasingly developing two separate career tracks. Entry into the management track depends on college or higher-level professional education prior to entry. 8 Thus increased college attendance by minorities has been important in offsetting the tendency toward a dual labor market.

The populations of many of the largest metropolitan areas are still increasing, although at a much slower rate. Even though individual areas are growing more slowly or even contracting, the proportion of the total population living in all metropolitan areas, and even in ones of a million people or more, continues to remain nearly constant due to the graduation of slightly smaller areas into larger population-size classes (Thompson, 1980:31-33). Table 1 Labor Force Distribution, by Industry Sectors for Seven Industrialized Countries, 1970 and Projected to 2000 United England and France and Japan States and West Italy Canada Germany Industry 1970 2000 1970 2000 1970 2000 1970 Sectors Extractive 7 5 5 4 19 10 20 28 47 40 41 35 34 Transformativea 32 Distributive 23 20 17 16 15 15 23 services Producer 8 12 5 10 4 10 5 services Social services 21 30 18 25 15 25 10 Personal 9 6 8 5 7 5 8 services 2000 5 40 20 10 20 5 Note: Percentages may not add to 100 because of rounding.

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