By Ivan I. Mueller (auth.), E. M. Gaposchkin, B. Kołaczek (eds.)

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Additional resources for Reference Coordinate Systems for Earth Dynamics: Proceedings of the 56th Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union Held in Warsaw, Poland, September 8–12, 1980

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The measured distance however has to be corrected for refraction before being used in the formula. The use of a theory will not affeet the arbitrariness of the origin and orientation of the referenee frame, unless some outside positional information is introdueed with the theory. A seheme including the necessary measurements, theories, and eomputations, by which coordinates in a eertain reference frame ean be eomputed, defines a reference system. The internal eonsistancy of such a system will depend on the aeeuracy of the measurements and their eorrections, on the completeness of the theories and the eorreetness of the constants, and on the preeision of the eomputations.

Conversations with many different people have been helpful in clarifying the ideas presented in this paper. Discussions of new measurement techniques with my colleagues at JlLA and with E. C. Silverberg, C. C. Goan, and C. C. Counselman 111 have been particularly valuable.. The work has been supported partly by the NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications under Contract S-65000-B and partly by the National Bureau of Standards. : 1974, Reference coordinate system requirements for geodynamies, in lAU Colloquium No.

Local effects, however, can be sizable and unpredictable, and therefore they are best determined from in situ observations. Thus most of the tidal effect in fact can and should be removed from the observations. 42 Plate Tectonic Mass Transfer. The concept that the earth lithosphere is made up of a relatively small number of plates which are in motion with respect to each other is the central theme of global plat tectonics. , [Solomon and Sleep, 1974; Kaula, 1975; or Minster and Jordan, 1978]). , [Chapple and Tullis, 1977]).

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