By M. Sovak (auth.), Professor Dr. Milos Sovak (eds.)
Contrast media are medications by means of default. Had there been no default, there will be little need for a similar pharmacology, and therefore little need for this ebook. Radiographic distinction media (CM) are ingredients whose fundamental function is to reinforce diagnostic info of clinical imaging structures. the placement of CM in pharmacology is exclusive. First, there's the weird requirement of organic inertness. an amazing CM will be thoroughly biologically inert, i.e., sturdy, no longer pharmacologically lively, and successfully and innocuously excretable. simply because they fail to fulfill those requisites, CM needs to be thought of medicines. the second one strange point of CM is they are utilized in huge amounts, their annual construction being measured in tens of lots. it's not inspite of, yet as a result of, the elevated use of recent radiographic structures, computed tomography, electronic radiography, etc., that intake is at the upward thrust. And, it's not most likely that the opposite rising imaging modalities - NMR, ultrasonography, and so on. - will displace radiographic CM quickly; it truly is relatively possible that those extraordinary compounds will proceed to play an energetic position in diagnostic imaging within the foreseeable future.
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Extra resources for Radiocontrast Agents
Sovak M, Ranganathan R (1980) Syntheses of new nonionic radiographic contrast media: acylamino-triiodophenyl ethers of sugars. Invest Radiol 15:S296. US Patent 4,243,653 62. Shapiro R, Papa D (1959) Heavy-metal chelates and cesium salts for contrast radiology. Ann NY Acad Sci 78:756-763 63. Rubin M, Di Chiro G (1959) Che1ates as possible contrast media. Ann NY Acad Sci 78:764-778 64. Nalbandian RM, Rice WT, Nickel WO (1959) A new category of contrast media: water-soluble radiopaque polyvalent che1ates.
Since the ability to sterilize the final product by autoclaving, rather than ultrafiltration, is a major cost-containing factor, polyhydroxyalkylamides should preferably be used, although they confer less hydrophilicity, molecule for molecule, than the sugars on the triiodinated moiety. Although a way of attaching stable sugars to the ring in a stable fashion could be found , economic considerations favor the use of aminoalkanol substitutes. Introduction: State of the Art and Design Principles of Contrast Media 17 Fig.
A properly formulated CM should remain stable in water solution at room temperature for at least 5 years if protectedfrom light. All organic carbon iodine bonds undergo cleavage by photolysis, the rate of which is dependent on the structure of the molecule, its concentration, and radiation intensity. The stability of CM can be monitored in several ways. Ordinarily stability studies are conducted by evaluating changes in pH and color, and by the appearance of iodide ion and any hydrolysis product (amino compound).