By Shinya Nagasaki, Shinichi Nakayama
This booklet describes crucial and powerful administration for reliably making sure public protection from radioactive wastes in Japan. this is often the 1st publication to hide many features of wastes from the nuclear gasoline cycle to analyze and scientific use, permitting readers to appreciate the characterization, therapy and ultimate disposal of generated wastes, functionality evaluate, institutional structures, and social concerns equivalent to intergenerational ethics. workouts on the finish of every bankruptcy support to appreciate radioactive waste administration in context.
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Extra info for Radioactive Waste Engineering and Management
Nakayama sterilization of injection needles and other medical equipment. Universities and research institutes conduct studies by using RIs as tracers and employ accelerators as radiation generating devices. The operation of these RI-using facilities and radiation generating devices generates RI-containing wastes such as test tubes, injectors, paper towels and off-gas filters. The dismantling of these facilities also generates such wastes as metals and concrete contaminated with RIs and activated products of these materials.
Uranium-containing radioactive wastes from fabrication facilities are characterized as follows in comparison with other types of radioactive wastes . 1. The radionuclide content is relatively low (ranging from 104 Bq/g to 1 Bq/g, which is close to the natural content), and the contents of beta- and gammaemitting nuclides are especially low. 2. Since uranium isotopes, which are primary radionuclides, have very long half-lives, the radionuclide content in wastes does not essentially decline. The radioactivity concentration will gradually increase with the generation of progeny nuclides and reach its peak in a few hundreds of thousands of years.
2 S. Nakayama Systematic Management of Radioactive Wastes The first priority in managing radioactive wastes is ultimately disposing of them safely, regardless of their characteristics and volume. 2, while efforts have been made to restrict radioactive waste generation, such as the clearance system. These are for the purposes of reducing the risk source and curbing the cost of waste treatment and disposal. The disposal depth for radioactive wastes varies by the waste type, but the choice of disposal depth—landfill disposal and concrete vault disposal at a shallow depth, subsurface disposal at a medium depth, or geological disposal deep underground— creates an order-of-magnitude difference in disposal costs.