By Tommy Bengtsson (auth.), Associate Prof. Tommy Bengtsson (eds.)

Tommy Bengtsson The Swedish welfare version of the Sixties and Seventies excited nice curiosity between many different international locations. this day it nonetheless is a perfect snapshot for a few yet a caution for plenty of others. the explanation why opinion concerning the Swedish welfare version has replaced is essentially Sweden's monetary difficulties, that are linked to a badly financed and excessively huge public region. it's argued that the scale of the finances deficit is a smart challenge in itself, but additionally, and maybe extra importantly, that the big public quarter has unwanted effects at the whole economic system because it bring about inefficient allocation of assets. a primary step with a view to resolve those difficulties is to ascertain how they arose. The questions then are to what volume the massive public area which Sweden has this present day effects from social entitlements that have come into lifestyles because the Sixties, from the maturing of welfare platforms made up our minds upon previous, from unfavorable demographic advancements, or from fiscal stagnation, and the way those components are interlinked. what's fairly transparent is that Sweden has had very low financial progress throughout the Nineteen Seventies and Nineteen Eighties in comparison with the previous interval. yet so have many different commercial nations, with no their having as a result discovered themselves in diffi­ culties as nice as Sweden's. hence monetary stagnation on my own can't clarify Sweden's situation.

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The labour market situation was specially favourable to highly-trained workers. technicians. engineers etc, while the changed alignment of production made demand for unskilled labour (women) relatively low. The 1950s can be characterised as mainly a transitional period, with comparatively small changes in relative wages of both women and young people. The fertility of older women continued to fall simultaneously with a gradual improvement of their labour market situation. On the other hand we find the fertility of young women rising.

Something to keep women busy while awaiting marriage and children or a forced undertaking for family support reasons. Work in the market had become a self-evident part of the life of adult women, even during periods with small children. The labour force participation rate for women continued to rise during the 1980s but at a slower pace. Women still supplied the major proportion, but no longer the whole, of the net increase to the labour force. The proportion of mothers among the inflow was lower than their proportion of the existing labour force.

21 See Carlsson (1967) for a discussion of the relevance of adjustment and innovation theories for Sweden. The Demographic Transition Revised 29 1880, as well as to the differences between town and country and between different social classes. However, regional and social disparities in fertility may well result from factors quite other than family planning, such as differences in breast-feeding practices. Fertility age-patterns in Sweden prior to the great decline of fertility, however, deviate somewhat from what is typical of populations where family planning is entirely absent, which suggests that part of the population did apply some type of family planning.

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