By E. E. Hansen, J. F. Hubstenberger, G. C. Phillips (auth.), Professor Dr. Y. P. S. Bajaj (eds.)

Twenty-seven chapters take care of the regeneration of vegetation from protoplasts and genetic transformation in a variety of species of Agrostis, Allium, Anthriscus, Asparagus, Avena, Boehmeria, Carthamus, Coffea, Funaria, Geranium, Ginkgo, Gladiolus, Helianthus, Hordeum, Lilium, Lithospermum, Mentha, Panax, Papaver, Passiflora, Petunia, Physocomitrella, Pinus, Poa, Populus, Rubus, Saintpaulia, and Swertia. those reviews replicate the far-reaching implications of protoplast expertise in genetic engineering of vegetation.
This quantity is of targeted curiosity to complex scholars, lecturers, and study scientists within the box of plant tissue tradition, molecular biology, genetic engineering, plant breeding, and basic plant biotechnology.

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Moreover, it is a source of unique compounds showing interesting pharmacological properties (see Carrier et al. 1994). With respect to its oviparous reproduction mode, G. biloba has been considered as a pre spermatophyte or a prephanerogam by Emberger (1949). It is an elegant tree that can exceed 30 m in height (Rohr 1989), despite slow growth. Its dimorphous branches are either long (auxiblasts) or short (mesoblasts) with alternating leaves and male or female flowers. On old trees, big branches can develop some ramifications (called Chichi-no-ki) for rooting.

As with protoplast regeneration in many other woody species, one factor that reduces the applicability of these techniques in coffee is the duration of the regeneration process. The time required for plant regeneration lies in the range of 1 year, although Spiral and Petiard (1992) mention that they achieved regeneration within 6 months from protoplasts of C. arabica. Regeneration of Plants from Protoplasts of Coffea spp. (Coffee) 29 4 Summary and Conclusions During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in the isolation and regeneration of coffee protoplasts.

Under these conditions, asynchronous development of embryos was observed. During the following two subcultures (same medium; first again darkness, then photoperiod 16 h, 1000 Ix), differentiation of embryos progressed and some plantlets with roots and green cotyledons were obtained. 3 Results and Discussion The protoplast yield for somatic embryos (Fig. 5 x 105 per gram fresh weight. Two types of embryo protoplasts (EP) were observed: small-sized protoplasts (diam. lm) with or without small vacuoles, and larger-sized protoplasts (diam.

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