By E. J. Hinch

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The most complete source of data arises from work by Tanuma and coworkers (for calculations for 14 organic compounds, including several polymers, see Tanuma, Powell & Penn (1994)). The calculations generate inelastic mean free path (A) values over the energy range 50-2000 eV and these can be fitted by a modified form of the Bethe equation for inelastic scattering: 38 XPS 60 - I . , 1994). PMMA • Calc. IMFPs Moo. Fit TPP-2 TPP-2M M 50 y S / - 40 f / 30 / / 1 20 ,,-'60 // 40 20 -• -''' / 10 " • , / > ' ' ' L o X' 0 T .

For use with quantification of samples not so contaminated (polymers are likely to be in this category) a correction needs to be applied. The low kinetic energy of F Is exacerbates this particular problem. By comparing ratios of (corrected) experimental and calculated relative sensitivity factors Seah (1990) has concluded that for peak intensities measured using the restricted range background subtraction methods (linear, Shirley), quantification is more accurate when empirial relative sensitivity factors are employed as compared with the calculated values.

1990). Conventional optics are used to generate a magnified image of the surface. Lens 3 projects the image to infinity so that electrons of all energies that pass through the spectrometer are emitted parallel to the axis to be imaged by lens 5. In this way the image quality is not degraded by the dispersing effect of the CHA. Six channeltrons, arranged as in Fig. 7 but about a central hole, collect the energy spectrum (detector 1). For any chosen photoelectron energy, the analyser can be set up so that these electrons pass through the central hole.

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