By M. J. Wells

between the organ platforms of cephalopods and people of much less bold molluscs. Octopus does, as we might are expecting, stay with reference to the bounds set via its personal body structure. The circulate, to take one instance, is simply enough for such an energetic animal, as a rule as a result of the absence of any approach for pack­ getting older the blood pigment; haemocyanin in answer is a negative oxygen service. Cephalopod blood can delivery under five millilitres of oxygen in keeping with a hundred ml of blood (compared with approximately 15 vol% in fish) and the entire supercharged procedure of triple hearts, hypertension and pulsating blood vessels succeeds purely in returning blood that keeps lower than 30% of its dissolved oxygen by the point it reaches the gills. This at relaxation; the influence of workout is speedy and unusually lengthy­ lasting even in octopuses as small as three hundred g, which needs to very speedily run into oxygen debt after they flee from predators or pursue their prey (Sections 3.2.2, 3.2.4). Digestion, too would appear to be proscribing. As with different molluscs, digestion in Octopus relies on secretion­ absorption cycles via a big diverticulum of the intestine, an sufficient method in a much less aggravating prior, yet scarcely acceptable in a predator that needs to be an opportunist within the topic of feeding. Octopus feeds regularly at evening, and spends loads of each day sitting at home.

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Extra resources for Octopus: Physiology and Behaviour of an Advanced Invertebrate

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13; excretion, apart from the elimination of carbon dioxide which is considered in discussing the blood pigment, is reviewed in Section 3. 3. 1 Mantle movements Like other molluscs, cephalopods have gills in a mantle cavity. Unlike the rest, the walls of the cavity are contractile. This immediately presents a problem because there is no hard skeleton for the muscles 25 Respiration, Circulation and Excretion to work against in expanding the respiratory chamber. The dibranchiate cephalopod solution to this difficulty has been the development of massive connective tissue lattices in the walls of the mantle, coupled with radial muscles in the thickness of the mantle wall.

The three results plotted"" are quoted from Buytendijk by Montuori without stating the temperature; they were, presumably, run in colder water (from Maginnis and Wells, 1969). Respiration, Circulation and Excretion 29 oxygen content, to the point at which the animals began to show respiratory distress. 18 (Borer and Lane, 1971; Fig. 2). Octopus is able to regulate its oxygen uptake over the whole of the range that it is likely to encounter in nature. Experimentally, 0. 0 ppm downwards (Fig. 3).

There is general agreement that the wandering amoebocytes originate in the 'white body', a conspicuous structure enclosed in one of the blood sinuses that wrap around the optic lobe and optic nerves, cushioning the eye within its orbit (Boycott and Young, 1956a). The white body consists of strings of cells suspended from the thin collagenous capsule that forms the wall of the sinus. Most of the spongy mass of tissue is made up of leucocytes in various stages of development, and many mitotic figures are seen, particularly in young individuals.

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