By Ernst Pfeffer, Alexander Hristov

There are super merits to feeding ruminants nitrogen and phosphorus vitamins, by way of milk creation and productiveness. even though what is going in, also needs to pop out. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretions from dairy livestock are an incredible environmental pollutant. This publication describes the newest wisdom in nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients of farm animals together with specifications, ruminal and overall tract metabolism, chances of expanding the potency of nitrogen usage and decreasing nitrogen and phosphorus excretions from dairy and pork operations. it is also elements of the consequences of nutritional nitrogen and phosphorus at the reproductive potency of farm animals.

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Example text

It has been concluded that more than 80% of culturable rumen bacteria 17 are capable of good or normal growth with ammonia as the sole N source (Morrison and Mackie, 1996). AA and peptides are also key metabolites in rumen N metabolism. It has been demonstrated that several species of bacteria require AA and peptides (Abou Akkada and Blackburn, 1963; Pittman and Bryant, 1964; Hungate, 1966). It is estimated that about 20% of rumen bacteria require pre-formed AA or peptides for growth (Bryant and Robinson, 1961).

In this study, because a protein-free diet was fed, measured protein would be the sum of microbial protein and endogenous protein. It is not clear why a higher rumen ammonia concentration was needed to maximize flow of protein than to maximize content of protein in rumen digesta because treatment had no effect on rumen fluid volume, or passage of digesta out of the rumen. 6 mmol/l may be warranted to give a margin of safety. Their observations were similar for a protein-free purified diet (cerelose, starch, wood pulp, minerals and refined soybean oil), an all concentrate diet (maize, molasses and minerals), or a mixed diet (maize, cerelose, lucerne hay, timothy hay, molasses and minerals).

Slyter et al. 2 mmol/l was needed to maximize total VFA concentrations and the amount of N retained by the animals. 3 mmol/l, but no further increases were seen with the higher levels of rumen ammonia. 3 mmol/l. In this experiment, a trend for a linear increase in acetate as a percentage of total VFA was also observed. Several other experiments have been reported in which the authors examined the effect of rumen ammonia concentrations on in situ degradation rates of feeds. Mehrez et al. (1977) fed whole barley fortified with six levels of a urea solution using automated continuous feeders to maintain steady states of rumen ammonia concentrations.

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