By Joe L. Mauderly, William C. Griffith, Rogene F. Henderson, Robert K. Jones (auth.), Paul C. Howard, Stephen S. Hecht, Frederick A. Beland (eds.)

Prior to 1979, attention of the matter of the carcinogenicity of the fragrant amine classification of chemical substances came about basically in poster classes and symposia of annual conferences of the yankee organization for melanoma examine and analogous overseas institutions. In November 1979 the 1st assembly excited about the fragrant amines was once held in Rockville, Haryland below fundamental sponsorship of the nationwide melanoma Institute. The lawsuits from this assembly have been released as Monograph fifty eight of the magazine of the nationwide Cancel' Institute in 1981. the second one assembly during this sequence, the second one overseas convention on N-Substituted Aryl Compounds, was once held in March/April of 1982 in sizzling Springs, Arkansas. The nationwide melanoma Institute and The nationwide heart for Toxicological study have been the first sponsors of this assembly. The lawsuits have been released as quantity forty nine of the magazine En-vil'onmental overall healthiness views in 1983. The 3rd assembly during this sequence was once held in April of 1987 on the Dearborn Hyatt in Dearborn, Michigan. The imperative sponsor of this assembly used to be the Heyer L. Pre ntis entire melanoma heart of Metropolitan Detroit. The court cases, Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Responses to fragrant Amines and Nitroal'enes, have been released in 1987 through Elsevier Press. The fourth assembly was once held in Cleveland, Ohio, on July 15-19, 1989.

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Extra resources for Nitroarenes: Occurrence, Metabolism, and Biological Impact

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33. 7. Tucker. D. and Ong. T. (1984). 7 -trtnitro-9-fluorene. Mutat. Res. 138. 181. 55 S. Hartong. A. Kraft. • Schulze. J .. Kiess. H. and Ues. K-H. (1984). The identification of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel particulate extracts and their potential formation as artifacts during particulate collection. Chromatographia. 19. 269-273. 9. Handa. • Yamauchi. • Ohnishi. M.. Hisematsu. Y. and Ishii. T. (1983).

As well as a carCinogen (27) in laboratory animals. NF has been studied in detail in our laboratory from an analytical point of view (36). and with regard to metabolism (37-39). lung effects (40-41) and genotoXic effects (42-44). A review of NF's prevalence and biological effects has also been published (34). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Humans can be exposed to 2-nitrofluorene. and nitro-PAH's in general. mainly via two routes. The direct exposure is via inhalation when air. with NF in the gas phase as well as absorbed on the surface of particles.

NF was. to a small extent, excreted in the urine on day one follOwing administration indicating the absorption of unreduced NF from the GI-tract. Consequently. NF Circulated in the body. The major metabolic route in germfree animals was thus the formation of OHNF's which also were responsible for the excreted direct-acting mutagenicity. In the urine from germfree animals a di-OH-NF was detected as the major metabolite in terms of radioactivity (34%), although it was only of minor importance in terms of mutagenicity (2%).

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