By Koh Sueda, Takashi Miyaki, Jun Rekimoto (auth.), Alessandro Puiatti, Tao Gu (eds.)

This e-book constitutes the completely refereed post-conference court cases of the eighth overseas ICST convention on cellular and Ubiquitous platforms: Computing, Networking, and prone, MobiQuitous 2011, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2011. The 34 revised complete papers provided have been conscientiously reviewed and chosen from various submissions. They conceal a variety of subject matters starting from localization and monitoring, seek and discovery, category and profiling, context expertise and structure, situation and job reputation in addition to a top paper consultation, an tune, and poster and demo papers.

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A Proposal on Direction Estimation between Devices Using Acoustic Waves 35 Fig. 6. Experimental results of Estimation Error Similarly, since the frequency of noise made by humans and cars is different, the impact of noise in shopping malls and parks is also considered small. Just in case if there is noise with high frequency, by scanning frequency of present noise, it is possible to select the frequency different from present noise. 9 degrees (P6 in Fig. 6 (b)), meaning the impact is slightly larger than that in other cases.

Through the experiment, we evaluate from the viewpoint of the impact of the distance between devices, reflection wave, noise and crowdedness on the estimation error, since these should be taken into account for the real world use. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 shows related work, while Chapter 3 newly proposes a direction estimation method between devices using acoustic waves. Chapter 4 describes the implementation of the application of the proposed method, and Chapter 5 evaluates it using the implemented application.

One of the ways to estimate direction without initial cost is the transmission and reception of radio signals or acoustic waves between devices via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth antennas and microphone/speaker, which are equipped with commercially available devices. However, it is difficult to estimate direction only by simple transmission and reception alone, because of omni-directional nature intrinsic to radio signals and acoustic waves transmitted from commercially available devices. Meanwhile, the known problem with distance and direction estimations using radio signals and acoustic waves is the increase in estimation error due to reflection from objects, such as walls and ceilings [1].

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