By Clifford C. Clogg
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Economic" underemployment is the sum of sub-unemployment, unemployment, hours, and the income forms of underemployment. c Denotes the number in the modified labor force upon which the percentages are based; that is, sample size. a sense or another, for their measurement to be valid. In a labor force as dynamic as the one represented in this study, variability in underemployment measures is a necessary, although certainly not a sufficient, condition for assessing the adequacy of our measures. 3.
On the basis of these results, it will again be apparent that an altogether different conception of labor force structure emerges when considering these new measures, adding to the validity of the labor utilization framework. 1. One difference between the two sets of results, however, is important to note. 1 the information was partitioned in a single multiway cross-table. The first 1 Region was a fourfold variable (northeast, central, south, and west); place of residence was a threefold variable (Central City of a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area [SMSAJ; in SMSA but not Central City; and not SMSA); and family type was a threefold variable (primary families, secondary families and subfamilies, primary and secondary individuals).
The new measures added considerable information to the characterization of these structural differentials and of the labor market change. In this section, we present another appraisal of the information in the new measures, focusing on other structural characteristics. 1 We now consider the additional information in the new measures for inferring underemployment differentials with respect to these structural variables, again demonstrating that the gain in information is considerable. On the basis of these results, it will again be apparent that an altogether different conception of labor force structure emerges when considering these new measures, adding to the validity of the labor utilization framework.