By Edmond de Hoffmann, Vincent Stroobant
Translated from the French version of 1999 (de Hoffmann teaches on the Catholic college, Louvain; Stroobant is with the Ludwig Institute for melanoma Research), the second one version beneficial properties an total revision, new references to web pages, and improved assurance of organic functions and new recommendations. each one bankruptcy covers the heritage of research and means of the subject, with an intensive record of references supplied. learn questions and their solutions are integrated, making this e-book applicable for complex undergraduate classes. one of the subject matters lined are ion assets, mass analyzers, tandem mass spectrometry, coupling, fragmentation reactions, and research of biomolecules.
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Additional resources for Mass Spectrometry. Principles and Applns
MALDI sources have also been coupled to other mass analysers, such as ion trap or Fourier transform mass spectrometers. These instruments allow MS/MS analysis to be performed much more powerfuly and easier realized than using TOF instruments. Furthermore, Fourier transform mass spectrometers reach high resolutions. 2 Practical Considerations Among the different lasers used, UV lasers are the most common because of their ease of operation and their low price. N2 lasers (λ = 337 nm) are considered as the standard, though Nd:YAG lasers (λ = 266 or 355 nm) are also used.
Unless it is a saturated hydrocarbon, the sample will mostly react by acquiring a proton in an acid–base type of reaction with one of the plasma ions, for example M + CH5 + −→ MH+ + CH4 A systematic study showed that the main ionizing reactions of molecules containing heteroatoms occurred through acid–base reactions with C2 H5 + and C3 H5 + . If, however, the sample is a saturated hydrocarbon RH, the ionization reaction will be a hydride abstraction: RH + CH5 + −→ R+ + CH4 + H2 Moreover, ion–molecule adduct formation is observed in the case of polar molecules, a type of gas-phase solvation, for example M + CH3 + −→ (M + CH3 )+ The ions (MH)+ , R+ and (M + CH3 )+ and other adducts of ions with the molecule are termed molecular species or, less often, pseudomolecular ions.
This problem is solved by adopting a differential pumping system. Usually two intermediate vacuum compartments are used between the source compartment and the analyser compartment because the pressure difference is quite large. The compartments are connected between them by lenses with very small orifices (called skimmers or cones). The pressures of the intermediate vacuum compartments are gradually reduced by using several differential stages of high-capacity pumps. Ions go across the compartments in the order of higher to lower pressure through these small orifices to reach the analyser compartment.