By N. J Seward

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The forces in the walls may be determined by an appropriate elastic analysis. Connections for transmitting the horizontal force to the walls should be properly designed. Horizontal loads Intensity of load along length of wall Fig. 6 for 1-way spanning walls. An extended set of tables is available in Concrete Masonry Designer’s Handbook37. e. 1 Limits on wall panel sizes (to be applied when using Table 15) For laterally loaded panels in mortar designations (i) to (iv) dimensions should not exceed the following: (a) Panel supported on three edges: (i) 2 or more sides continuous: height x length G 1500tef2 (ii) all other cases: height x length G 1350tef2 where tef is the effective thickness (b) Panel supported on all four edges: (i) 3 or 4 sides continuous: height x length G 2250tef2 (ii) all other cases: height x length G 2025tef2 In (a) and (b) height or length 50tef (c) Panel simply supported top and bottom height G 40tef where the effective thickness is defined as for vertically loaded walls.

In all other cases, including buildings of more than 3 storeys, connections of the form illustrated in Figs 20, 21 and 22 (based on BS5628-11 and -32) will usually provide simple resistance to lateral movement. Enhanced horizontal restraints Enhanced resistance to lateral movement may be assumed where: ● floors or roofs of any form of construction span on to the wall or column from both sides at the same level, which if positioned at the top of the wall are positively fixed to the wall with straps on both sides of the wall ● an in-situ concrete floor or roof, or a precast concrete floor or roof giving equivalent restraint, irrespective of the direction of span, has a bearing of at least one-half the thickness of the wall or inner leaf of a cavity wall or column on to which it spans, but in no case is less than 90mm ● in the case of houses of not more than 3 storeys, a timber floor spans on to a wall from one side and has a bearing of not less than 90mm.

05t, respectively: from Table 14, using the value of eccentricity appropriate to the major axis and the value of slenderness ratio appropriate to the minor axis. 05t, respectively: calculate the additional eccentricities using BS5628-11, Appendix B. 9 Vertical load resistance of cavity walls and columns Where in a cavity wall the load is carried by one leaf only, the loadbearing capacity of the wall should be based on the horizontal cross-sectional area of that leaf alone, although the stiffening effect of the other leaf can be taken into account when calculating the slenderness ratio.

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