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Extra info for [Magazine] Scientific American. Vol. 292. No 6

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The NAXPRES Synthesizer employs a set of rules to clear up ambiguities such as multiple ways of interpreting abbreviations. “St. ” With the sequence of words established, the system needs to figure out how it should say them. htm pronunciation depends on the part of speech. For instance, the word “permits” is spoken permits when it is used as a noun and permits when it is a verb. So we use a grammar parser to determine the part of speech of each word: permits (noun) cost (verb) eighty (adjective) dollars (noun) per (preposition) year (noun) At this stage, our synthesizer is ready to convert the words into phonemes.

Changes in the fine-structure constant affect magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) less than iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni). Fractional Change in ␣ (percent) 50 SIMULATED SPECTRA show how 0 –40 150 200 250 300 ALISON KENDALL; SOURCE: JOHN K . WEBB Wavelength (nanometers) Even atomic clocks can detect drifts in the fine-structure constant only over days or, at most, years. If ␣ changed by more than four parts in 1015 over a three-year period, the best clocks would see it.

El we observed a threefold drop in their carbon dioxide output within the fi rst five minutes, and their core body temperatures began to fall. The animals ceased all movement and appeared to lose consciousness. Over the course of several hours in this environment, the animals’ metabolic rate continued to decrease, as measured by their carbon dioxide output, ultimately falling 10-fold. Their breathing rate slowed from a norm of 120 breaths per minute to fewer than 10. The animals’ core body temperature kept dropping from their usual 37 degrees Celsius until it reached a level ap- proximately two degrees C above the air temperature, regardless of what that was.

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