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Extra info for International Olympiad in Informatics 2001 - tasks and solutions
It is also possible to order the area sums in other ways, in which case the indexing scheme changes. Reference  P. M. Fenwick, A new data structure for cumulative frequency tables, Software - Practice and Experience 24, 3 (1994), 327-336, 1994. 8 Pavement (a back-up task) Problem The stone pavement around the Tampere Hall is made of small fixed size stone squares. The pavement is damaged during the winter. The pavement is reconstructed using spare plates, which consist of four or five such squares connected together.
The probability of winning a game by doing only random moves is low. References  C. Stirling. Bisimulation, model checking and other games. Notes for Mathfit Instructional Meeting on Games and Computation, University of Edinburgh, June 23-23, 1997. ps  T. Poranen and Jyrki Nummenmaa, Graph-theoretical algorithms for MC-games. Unpublished manuscript. Department of Computer and Information Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland, 2001. 10 Tictac (a demo task) Problem Tic-tac is a traditional two-player game.
Each time it is increased, numconts is used to calculate the number of words that were skipped in the operation, and the current value is updated accordingly. When all the letters have been fixed, we have the correct solution. Doing things the other way around works almost the same way. We again fix the letters one by one, this time incrementing them until the current value exceeds the desired value. When this happends, we take a step back, and move to the next letter. When we're finished, the two values have become equal, and we have the correct word.