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38 2 Causes of Stress on Particles . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3 Description of Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Bioreactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Model Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4 Estimation of Particle Stress on the Basis of the Velocity and Turbulence Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Bioreactors . . . . . . Shake Flasks . . . . . . Stirred Tanks . . . . . . Gas-Liquid Contacting Reactors Model Reactors .

Stirring with a Smooth Disc . . . . . . Bubble Column . . . . . . . . . . 7 Laws of Scale for Stirred Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . 70 8 Particles Stress Equations Derived from Empirical Results . . . 71 9 Stress in Biological Particle Systems . . . . . . . . . 3 Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Animal Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Enzymatic Reaction with Immobilised Enzymes . . . . . . 78 10 Conclusion .

The uniformity of stress inside the gap decrease with increasing Re number. If the particles have the tendency to flow close to the moving wall, they will be subjected to the maximum shear. 2 Channels The special flow conditions in circular (capillaries, tubes) or rectangular channels cause very different stresses depending on the position of the particles in the flow cross section. g. [37]): – 2y du u = C 5 4 5 dy D D ΂ ΃ (14) where y is the position coordinate which starts in the centre of the flow channel.

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