By Nesli Sozer

Food items are complicated in nature which makes their research tough. assorted clinical disciplines equivalent to biochemistry, microbiology, and meals, including engineering options are fascinated with their characterization. even though, imaging of nutrition fabrics and information research has received extra value because of strategies within the nutrition undefined, in addition to the emergence of nutrition nanotechnology. picture research protocols and strategies can be utilized in nutrients constitution research and method tracking. for that reason, nutrients constitution imaging is important for varied sections of the nutrition chain ranging from the uncooked fabric to the top product. This publication offers info on imaging thoughts similar to electron microscopy, laser microscopy, x-ray tomography, raman and infrared imaging, including facts research protocols. It addresses the latest advances in imaging applied sciences and information research of grains, liquid nutrition platforms (i.e. emulsions and gels), semi-solid and strong foams (i.e. bakery items, dough, accelerated snacks), protein movies, end result and vegetable confectionery and nuts.

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1. Interpretation of FTIR spectra The spectral assignment is critical when interpreting the data. The FTIR spectra of several cereal grain components are illustrated in Fig. 2. The most important information on the chemical structure of components is in the fingerprint region of the spectra (800–1800 cm−1). The high 2 Localization of Cereal Grain Components by Vibrational Microscopy … 43 Fig. 1 Overlaid FTIR images of cross-section of wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernel: blue = arabinoxylan (highly branched); green = arabinoxylan (low branched); white = starch; black = holes.

Possibly as a result of the more intensive protein aggregation, tyrosinase increased the firmness of the dough. In addition, tyrosinase improved the textural quality of final bread by increasing significantly the specific volume of the bread. The results thus indicate that cross-linking of oat globulins by tyrosinase is beneficial for improving the texture of gluten-free oat bread. 5 Summary Microscopy techniques enable the examination of cereal grain structure on different levels. The structural features as well as the localization of grain components in whole grains as well as in their processing and end products can be carried out.

The main advantage of the latter is a much higher (1000x) light density but the utilization is limited due to few instruments available. Alternatively, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy can be applied in grain cell wall microspectroscopic analysis (Barron and Rouau 2008). In this technique, the sample is pressed against a high- refractive index crystal and the infrared spectrum is measured through the crystal in the total reflection angle. In this technique, the infrared irradiation does not actually penetrate the sample but the evanescent wave at the crystal–sample interface generates the infrared spectrum at the sample surface.

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