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Extra resources for ICTS Foreign Language: Spanish 135 Teacher Certification, 2nd Edition (XAM ICTS)

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The reflexive pronoun is another form of an object pronoun, either direct or indirect. It indicates that the subject and the object of the verb are the same person or thing. Reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se) generally precede the verb in simple and compound tenses or they may be tacked onto the end of verbs which are in the infinitive, gerund, or command forms. The final –d in a vosotros verb command form, replacing –r at the end of the infinitive, is dropped if the reflexive pronoun is added to the end.

Ellas fem. Subject pronouns are used for emphasizing or for clarifying the object. The English pronoun “It” has no Spanish equivalent. The reflexive pronoun is another form of an object pronoun, either direct or indirect. It indicates that the subject and the object of the verb are the same person or thing. Reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se) generally precede the verb in simple and compound tenses or they may be tacked onto the end of verbs which are in the infinitive, gerund, or command forms.

Felipe’s reign and its subsequent efforts to propagate Christianity saw the end of the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean and the incorporation of Portugal into the Kingdom of Spain after the death of King Sebastian, to whom Carlos V was closely related, in 1578. The destruction of its “la Armada Invincible” (The Invincible Armada), in 1588 by England, was a foreboding to the end of Spain’s expansion into external territories. Felipe II died in 1598 and his successors, Felipe III and IV, proved to be less than capable than ruling an empire of such great size.

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