By A.T. Olmstead

Out of a life of research of the traditional close to East, Professor Olmstead has collected formerly unknown fabric into the tale of the existence, instances, and considered the Persians, instructed for the 1st time from the Persian instead of the normal Greek aspect of view.

"The fullest and most appropriate presentation of the heritage of the Persian Empire in existence."—M. Rostovtzeff

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Until the first pre-Christian millennium, Elamite was spoken in western Persia; Haldian appeared in Armenia, Hurrian or Mitannian in northern and western Mesopo­ tamia, and Hittite, Carian, Pamphylian, Lycian, and Lydian in Asia Minor. The original Semitic was confined to North Arabia. edu 4 HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE nicians to their historic abode, and led the speakers of Akkadian to Babylonia. Into Babylonia also descended the Sumerians, whose use of the horse and chariot, physical characteristics, and agglutinative "Turanian" speech suggest a Central Asian origin.

8 Vid. 5:12; 8:9. 9 Henry Field, Contributions to the Anthropology of Iran (1939). 10 The Caspian Sea is mentioned in Herodotus i. 202 fF. and iv. 40; otherwise it does not occur until Hellenistic times. 11 Strabo xi. 8; cf. Herod, iii. 92-93; vii. 67, 86; Plin. vi. 45. 12 To understand the reason for these practices, set out in all their grisly minutiae by the Antidemonic Law, we must turn to read the still vaster magical literature of the Sumerians, immigrants into Babylonia from Central Asia, or the modern accounts of the Shaman­ ism found to this day in the same regions.

I. Ros tovtzeff, "The Sumcrian Treasure of Astrabad," JEA, VI (1920), 4 ff. a9 Yasna 9:3-4. 10 Yasna 8:32; cf. 44:20. ; 19:46; Yasna 9:5; Vid. 2:2. ; 19:28 ff. 34 Keresaspa, son of Sama, was a hero who avenged the death of his brother Urvakhshaya, the judge and lawgiver, by killing the assassin Hitaspa and carrying home the corpse in his own chariot. 35 Hitaspa bears a good Iranian name; perhaps he was an enemy nomad, a Turanian. The next enemy mentioned is also a Turanian: Frangrasyan (Afrasiab), who from his cleft in the earth swam across Vouru-kasha in a vain attempt to steal the Awful Royal Glory which conferred sov­ ereignty.

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