By Howard B. Rock

Haven of Liberty chronicles the arriving of the 1st Jews to big apple in 1654 and highlights the position of republicanism in shaping their identification and associations. Rock follows the Jews of NewYork in the course of the Dutch and British colonial eras, the yankee Revolution and early republic, and the antebellum years, finishing with a path-breaking account in their outlook and behaviour in the course of the Civil warfare. Overcoming major obstacles, those brave women and men laid the rules for one of many world’s premier Jewish cities.

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Extra info for Haven of Liberty: New York Jews in the New World, 1654-1865 (City of Promises, Vol. 1)

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This liberty was central to British mercantilism. Commercial regulation assumed more importance than religious orthodoxy. ”2 Discriminatory rules against Jews selling by retail were allowed to lapse, permitting Jews to enter the handicrafts. While either citizenship or endenization was required to engage in trade within the British Empire, neither was difficult to acquire. A few Jews became denizens, resident aliens admitted to commercial rights within English territories, but after 1715, when the New York Assembly passed legislation allowing naturalization to any foreigner in the colony who either owned real estate or was present in New York prior to November 1, 1683, most sought citizenship.

26 The West India Company, in its initial response to Stuyvesant, only granted Jews the right to practice their faith within their homes. ” A later communication noted that Jews “exercise in all quietness their religion within their house” and advised them to live close to each other as they did in Amsterdam. 27 Little evidence remains of the religious practices of the Jewish community. ” Too, the Jewish citizens, “being we ar all mortall men,” requested land for a burying ground from the burgomasters in 1665.

Jewish Merchants of New York: The Early Colonial Era Understanding the Jewish world of colonial New York begins with a portrait of their leaders, the merchant elite, and the Atlantic network in which they lived. Not all Jews were wealthy. But a good number were, and those who were not sought to become so. As historian Eli Faber notes, “Whether Sephardic or Ashkenazi, Jews who settled in colonial America . . ” Even if one began as a shopkeeper, he wanted to die as a merchant. 7 Among the more interesting Sephardic Jewish merchants was Joseph Bueno de Mesquita, whose life spanned nearly a century.

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