By Angus M. Gunn

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About the only other way I could have reached this country was to have gone down through the Cumberland Gap and then back north through Kentucky, but the distance would have been several hundreds of miles longer. Of course I admit I came pretty close to boarding a keelboat or a flatboat at Pittsburgh and continuing my trip west by floating down the Ohio River. River traffic, I hear, is increasing every year. Certainly I saw lots of settlers loading all their worldly goods on board and setting off.

Chinese and Arab merchants had established a settlement in the area now known as the Tondo foreshore close to downtown Manila. The immediate hinterland was suitable for agriculture, and the Pasig River, which entered Manila Bay at this point both provided fresh water and gave interior access for small boats. Then came the Spanish conquerors and after them the United 32 States colonialists. Human Settlements Trade expanded and Manila flourished. World War Two was a devastating experience. The Japanese destroyed much of the city.

Instead of a traditional resource of young people who would take over when the older generation passed on, the countryside began to inherit an aging population. See Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. This happened at the very time that agriculture production had to be stepped up in order to feed the burgeoning urban populations. 'V? :■< m i ÏW$i'& 50 Percentage of population of all ages Legend: Ages 0-14 Ages 15-44 Ages 45+ Fig. 3 Age structures in 8 major areas 100 Human Settlements 54 Australia and New Zealand Urban Rural Northern America Urban Rural iyi Latin America Urban Rural \3Z Europe Urban Rural 187 19 5 Soviet Union Urban Rural Japan Urban Rural South Asia Urban Rural Africa Urban Rural 196 1125 Z U 109 I ] 108 176 172 19 6 192 101 19 5 1 50 1118 1117 100 Fig.

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