By Cornelis Disco
How are new sciences and applied sciences created, coordinated and controlled? The case reviews during this quantity express that applied sciences are the contingent results of advanced strategies: social negotiation and coordination among the actors (firms, executive organizations, engineers) and planners.
Note: The booklet is incomplete. The PDF contains: desk of contents, advent, Ch 7, Ch 10, Ch eleven, Bibliography.
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Extra info for Getting New Technologies Together: Studies in Making Sociotechnical Order
Smolders was appointed chairman of the Program Committee of the lOP (E) . It was not difficult to show that Smolders ' interests were directly served by some of the outcomes : e . g . , the main recipient of lOP funding was Smolders ' own research group (about a third of all proj ects) and by the end of the 1 980s his research group had become the largest university group on membrane research in the world . However, the growth of his research group and his reputation were not the only outcomes of the lOP .
In the last section of this paper we will conclude that studies of technological development will therefore shed light on basic features of the problematic duality of structure and agency . But, first, we shall identify a key feature of technological development which is apparent in al l three of our examples . 4 From Promise to Requirement The dynamics of the "unstoppable train, " and of self-justifying technology in general , is a conversion of promises into requirements at the societal level .
What sociology deals with instead is " social order, " " structure, " " institutions , " " rules . " Our point is that while some coordina tion is obviously implied and understood in these concepts and insights , it is not explicated as such . The three examples are from earlier work . The first example is discussed in Rip ( 1 992) . The second and third case are discussed and analyzed in Van Lente ( 1 993) . A n example i n the Netherlands and Germany i s the Megachip project, i n which Philips and Siemens received a few hundred million dollars each to develop the one and four Megabit memory chip .