By James E. Fraser
From Caledonia to Pictland examines the earliest levels of Scottish historical past at a time while ''Scotland'' hadn't but come into lifestyles. It charts the transformation of the Celtic-speaking tribes of Iron Age Caledonia into the multi-lingual Christian kingdoms of Early Medieval northern Britain, peopled by way of Picts, Britons, Angles and Gaels. significant elements during this approach comprise the direct and oblique impression of the Roman Empire, the profound impression of Christianisation, and the inflow of Germanic settlers to the east and of Gaelic settlers to the west. Politically, we see the emergence of dynastic kingship and the earliest origins of nation constructions; culturally, this was once a interval of brilliant inventive success. the quantity concludes with a bankruptcy on resources introducing the wide-range of, frequently intractable, facts to be had to the historian of the period.
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Extra resources for From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795
In passing this activity had helped to deﬁne or reinforce outer Brigantia as a zone distinct from inner Caledonia. It had also created a divided island quite unlike anything that had gone before. Britannia in the south and barbaricum in the north continued on somewhat diﬀerent paths through the Early Historic period and beyond. It took a century of doubt for the Romans to decide ﬁnally that, in political terms, outer Brigantia was to remain barbaricum as Hadrian had envisioned. Yet we shall see that the peoples of outer Brigantia themselves were not so sure about that, in ethnic terms at least.
44 Keeley, War Before Civilization, 48; see also Alcock, Kings and Warriors, 202. 45 Adomnán, V. s. 42; Bede, Hist. 21; Keeley, War Before Civilization, 115–17, 179; Halsall, Warfare and Society, 16; Alcock, Kings and Warriors, 122. 41 42 32 from caledonia to pictland As regards the Roman Iron Age in northern Britain, Early Historic anecdotes and broad anthropological models are admittedly no substitute for hard evidence of endemic warfare. The search for evidence is complicated by the need to beware biased Roman reporting on the subject of native savagery.
Roman military activity in the Flavian and subsequent periods would have disturbed and reconﬁgured 63 Wenskus, Stammesbildung und Verfassung; Wolfram, History of the Goths; Geary, ‘Ethnic Identity’; Brooks, Bede and the English; James, ‘The Origins of Barbarian Kingdoms’, 47–8; Heather, ‘Disappearing and Reappearing Tribes’, 104–9.