By Inderjeet Parmar
Inderjeet Parmar finds the complicated interrelations, shared mindsets, and collaborative efforts of influential private and non-private businesses within the development of yankee hegemony. targeting the involvement of the Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie foundations in U.S. international affairs, Parmar strains the transformation of the United States from an "isolationist" kingdom into the world's in simple terms superpower, all within the identify of benevolent stewardship.
Parmar starts within the Twenties with the institution of those foundations and their procedure of top-down, elitist, medical giving, which concentrated extra on coping with social, political, and fiscal switch than on fixing glossy society's structural difficulties. Consulting infrequent files and different archival fabrics, he recounts how the yank intellectuals, lecturers, and coverage makers affiliated with those enterprises institutionalized such elitism, which then bled into the equipment of U.S. international coverage and have become considered as the essence of modernity.
America was hoping to switch Britain within the position of worldwide hegemon and created the required political, ideological, army, and institutional capability to take action, but faraway from being goal, the Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie foundations frequently complex U.S. pursuits on the cost of alternative countries. Incorporating case reviews of yankee philanthropy in Nigeria, Chile, and Indonesia, Parmar boldly exposes the data networks underwriting American dominance within the 20th century.
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Extra info for Foundations of the American Century: The Ford, Carnegie, and Rockefeller Foundations in the Rise of American Power
The faint white lines in the center of the photograph are footprints of the concrete seawalls being built to the configuration of the harbor. ) 31 A few oil wells are still standing on Pacific Avenue in 1960. The roadway is connecting to the Ballona Creek Bridge, and more of the entrance channel has been dredged. Dirt roadways are intertwined throughout, as mud and sediment continue to be relocated. It is estimated that the volume of dirt relocated in the building of the marina would fill over eight Los Angeles Coliseums.
The future fuel dock is at the corner site of the upper landmass (center). A few oil wells remain on the peninsula. ) In order to maintain adequate tidal action and ocean flow into the Grand Canal, which will now open to the ocean through the harbor entrance channel instead of via Ballona Creek, two oil wells were removed and capped. In this 1959 photograph, the two coffer dams (circle area) are adjacent to the Lighthouse Bridge (center bottom) connecting the peninsula with the marina development.
48 As seen in the above photograph, taken in 1963, the “washing machine” wave action undermined the walkway along the seawall at Pieces of Eight restaurant (right). The damage was especially intense in the area next door, where the Harbor Administration Center is located on Fiji Way (below). The severity of the surge intensified the urgency for the US Army Corps of Engineers to speed up its short-term solution for immediate prevention of more damage as well as to develop a permanent safe-harbor plan.