By D. P. S. Peacock, A. C. S. Peacock, David Williams

The tale of incense is likely one of the such a lot exciting in either japanese and western tradition. From the 1st millennium BC to the modern-day it's been wanted and valued on a par with useful metals or gemstones. even though incense used to be a luxurious, it used to be ate up in prodigious amounts by way of the traditional global, in temples and at funerals, but in addition in inner most houses. The papers in this quantity examine the position of incense, basically - even though no longer completely - throughout the Roman interval. it truly is was hoping that they are going to offer a place to begin for additional study into this very important, yet overlooked, region of social and fiscal archaeology.

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Fig. 7. Remains of the temple of Syn at Shabwa. Fig. 8. The south gate at Timna’, with a lengthy inscription in Qatabanian. The main caravan routes were usually maintained and secured by officials and soldiers of the kingdom through which they passed, and there would have been military settlements as well as taxation points along the way. From around the 5th century BC, most caravans consisted of at least 200 camels, together with the merchants and their servants. There was also usually an armed guard of local nomads who would travel ahead of the group to deflect attack from bandits, plus a local guide, to lead the merchants through difficult terrain.

Fig. 3. A woman from the hawjeri region of eastern Dhofar harvesting frankincense in the traditional manner. Fig. 4. Frankincense trees flourish in the rocky limestone terrain of Wadi Do’an, Ḥaḍramawt. Frankincense and myrrh trees cannot be cultivated in great numbers; they grow wild in gullies, on limestone plains and along wadis. Clumps of trees growing close together, or in a particular wadi, are known as a manzilah or ‘grove’. For centuries, and until very recently, every manzilah was owned by a certain family, who had the right to harvest the trees.

Fig. 3. A woman from the hawjeri region of eastern Dhofar harvesting frankincense in the traditional manner. Fig. 4. Frankincense trees flourish in the rocky limestone terrain of Wadi Do’an, Ḥaḍramawt. Frankincense and myrrh trees cannot be cultivated in great numbers; they grow wild in gullies, on limestone plains and along wadis. Clumps of trees growing close together, or in a particular wadi, are known as a manzilah or ‘grove’. For centuries, and until very recently, every manzilah was owned by a certain family, who had the right to harvest the trees.

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