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In this ebook, top scientists within the fields of sensory biology, neuroscience, physics and engineering discover the elemental operational ideas and behavioral makes use of of movement sensing in animals and the way they could be utilized to engineering purposes resembling self sufficient keep watch over of underwater or aerial vehicles.
Although people own no flow-sensing talents, numerous aquatic (e.g. fish, cephalopods and seals), terrestrial (e.g. crickets and spiders) and aerial (e.g. bats) animals have circulation sensing skills that underlie amazing behavioral feats. those comprise the power to persist with silent hydrodynamic trails lengthy after the trailblazer has left the scene, to shape hydrodynamic photographs in their atmosphere in overall darkness, and to swim or fly successfully and easily within the face of destabilizing currents and winds.
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Additional info for Flow Sensing in Air and Water: Behavioral, Neural and Engineering Principles of Operation
6). In a systematic fashion, we studied the ability of six hairs of different lengths (410–870 lm) to follow oscillatory flows between 30 and 300 Hz (Bathellier et al. 2012). We found that cricket air-motion sensing hairs (and those in spiders) work close to the physical limit of sensitivity and energy transmission across a broad range of relatively high frequencies. In this range of frequencies, the hairs closely follow the motion of the incoming flow because a minimum of energy is dissipated in their basal articulation.
4 lm. The measurement depth is the distance from the center of the object plane beyond which the particle image intensity is too low to contribute significantly to the measurement. It is given by Meinhart et al. (2000): dzm ¼ 3nk 2:16dp þ dp þ tan h NA2 where dp is the tracer particle diameter (for RhB-labeled beads, dp = 360 nm) and tan h = NA/n. With the optical settings we used, dzm ¼ 12:3 lm: For our experimental setup, the measurement depth was larger than the expected depth of field. We therefore had to keep the depth estimation criteria that gave the largest numerical result.
1 in our case. It is also important to note that di is the size of the particle as projected onto the camera CCD sensors. Thus, the size of this particle in the measurement field will also depend on the size of the CCD sensor (see Fig. 8). 87 lm. 87 lm/pixels = 10 lm (Fig. 8). 2 Laser-Based Optical Methods 45 Fig. 8 Explanation of the estimation of the particle image size Another limitation results from the large amount of light re-emitted by the surface of objects present in the flow. Biological sensory organs are generally very small, and therefore the capacity of the technique to resolve flows within a few hundred microns of the surface is crucial.